the face of earth 500 million individuals, who makes 10 percent of the adult
population have some form of kidney damage and every year millions die of
heart disease linked to CKD. The main causes of CKD in order of priority are
uncontrolled diabetes, uncontrolled high blood pressure, infections and
stones of kidney and urinary tract while presence of stones in the renal
tract is the leading cause of kidney failure in children. These kidney
diseases actually contribute morbidity from cardiovascular disease in 12
million individuals worldwide each year and these numbers are multiplying
rapidly due to global epidemic of types 2 diabetes.
cost of kidney failure treatments are escalating worldwide, over 1.5 million
people are kept alive through either haemo or peritoneal dialysis or
transplantation and this number is expected to double within the next 10
cumulative global cost for dialysis and transplantation over the next decade
is predicted to exceed US$ 1 trillion. The worst bit of this whole picture
is that 80 percent of patients benefiting from renal replacement therapy
live in developed countries and only 10 percent of patients in Pakistan and
India are benefited by this treatment. In many African countries there is
little or no access to renal replacement therapy mean to face the stark
reality of death, plain and simple death.
Fortunately we can detect chronic kidney diseases early on. Simple routine
tests of urine, blood, ultrasound examination, and symptoms of diabetes,
uncontrolled high blood pressure and heart and vessels diseases greatly
facilitate the diagnosis, but the positive outcome is that by using correct
drugs, certain precautions and change of life style not only brings about
control of chronic kidneys diseases but at times can get you rid of it.
diseases of kidney and urinary tract, which can be treated with surgical
intervention, include urinary stones, congenital urinary diseases,
genitourinary cancers and enlargements of prostate gland in old men.
Pakistan 60 percent of the surgical work of all districts hospital comprises
of urological diseases and most of these are with kidney, uretar and bladder
stones. The most common causes of these are malnutrition, unbalanced diet,
deceased intake of liquids, repeated or chronic urinary tract infection
injudicious use of certain drugs especially painkillers and few genetic and
kidney and bladder stones can be diagnosed by simple x-ray and ultrasound
examinations. Specialised x-ray techniques are used to identify more
accurately the size and location of stone and function of the kidney, which
facilitate the treatment planning few urine and blood test do help establish
the cause of stone formation.