Hazrat Omer R.A. On Throne

(S. Maliha Sehar, Karachi)


Brought up while browing camels, the Hazrat Omer R.A. was born into a poor family. However he got famous far and wide in Arabia due to his ingenious personality in trade and business, gradually becoming a successful merchant. Despite illiteracy being common and normal in Arabia, Omer learnt to read and write in his youth years. Though not a poet himself, he developed fondness for poetry. Following the custom of Quresh, he was also trained at martial arts. A wrestler who was feared by even the lords of Quresh. Fond of drinking alcohol in routine, he was a man of sheer power and confidence even prior to accepting Islam and gaining authority as the “great” caliph.
Moving ahead in time he became an epitome of power. Hazrat Umar Ibn-Al-Khattab became the most powerful and influential Muslim caliph, the world can ever record. He belonged to Banu Adi family tribe of Quraish in Makah and was the declared as the second Caliph after Hazrat Abu Bakar (R.A) and senior companion of Prophet Muhammad (SAW).

Hazrat Omer R.A. was called as Farooq- the one who distinguishes between right and wrong. He ordered his General Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed to resign from his leadership in the battlefield. He dismissed Hazrat Saad bin Abi Waqas from the governors of KOFFA Iraq.
He withdrawn the governing from Hazrat Harith ibn Ka'b, he ordered to confiscate the property of governor Umro bin AlAas. He called back the governor of Hirs and as a penalty ordered him to look after camels.

And guess what? None of them showed a trace of denial or opposition over his command because of his reputation as a just and winning leader.
He was an orator, a flaw less horse rider and awe-strikingly confident.


After the Islam prevailed, Quresh made it impossible for Muslims to pray at Kabbah. Omer, however prayed in openly and fearlessly at the Kabbah while the Quraish chiefs, Amr ibn Hishām and Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, reportedly watched in anger. He even challenged anyone who dared to stop the Muslims from praying, although no one dared to interfere with Umar when he was openly praying.

“Umar's submission to Islam was a conquest, his migration was a victory, his Imamate (period of rule) was a blessing, I have seen when we were unable to pray at the Kaabah until Umar submitted, when he submitted to Islam, he fought them (the pagans) until they left us alone and we prayed.”
— Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud,

Forming the great Sultanate:


The government of Umar was a unitary government, where the sovereign political authority was the caliph. The empire of Umar was divided into provinces and some autonomous territories (e.g. Azerbaijan and Armenia) that had accepted the suzerainty of the caliphate.

The provinces were administered by the provincial governors or Wali, personally and fastidiously selected by Umar. Provinces were further divided into about 100 districts.

Each district or main city was under the charge of a junior governor or Ameer, usually appointed by Umar himself, but occasionally also appointed by the provincial governor. Other officers at the provincial level were:
1. Katib, the Chief Secretary.
2. Katib-ud-Diwan, the Military Secretary.
3. Sahib-ul-Kharaj, the Revenue Collector.
4. Sahib-ul-Ahdath, the Police chief.
5. Sahib-Bait-ul-Mal, the Treasury Officer.
6. Qadi, the Chief Judge.

In some districts there were separate military officers, though the Wali was, in most cases, the Commander-in-chief of the army quartered in the province.

Every appointment was made in writing. At the time of appointment an instrument of instructions was issued with a view to regulating the Wali's conduct.
On assuming office, the Wali was required to assemble the people in the main mosque, and read the instrument of instructions before them.
Umer's general instructions to his officers were:
“Remember, I have not appointed you as commanders and tyrants over the people. I have sent you as leaders instead, so that the people may follow your example. Give the Muslims their rights and do not beat them lest they become abused. Do not praise them unduly, lest they fall into the error of conceit. Do not keep your doors shut in their faces, lest the more powerful of them eat up the weaker ones. And do not behave as if you were superior to them, for that is tyranny over them.”

Doesn’t it sound the best way possible to build strong connections between authorized rulers and state population? This is something crazily positive and influential that the Hazrat Omer R.Z. developed. His empires were divided into the following provinces:
• Mecca (Arabia)
• Medina (Arabia)
• Basra (Iraq)
• Kufa (Iraq)
• Jazira, in the upper reaches of the Tigris and Euphrates
• Syria
• Iliyā' (إلياء) (Palestine)
• Ramlah (Palestine)
• Upper Egypt
• Lower Egypt
• Khorasan (Persia)
• Azerbaijan (Persia)
• Fars (Persia)


Hazrat Umer R.A. was a pioneer in many affairs. Reading down you can think of these concepts to be regular and common but do not forget that before Hazrat Omer, these concepts were foreign and never even idealized. He initiated the system we have around today.
1. He was the first to introduce the public ministry system, where the records of officials and soldiers were kept. He also kept a record system for messages he sent to Governors and heads of state.
2. He was the first to appoint police forces to keep civil order.
3. Adopted the sentence أصلوأة خير من النوم (Prayer is Better than Sleep) in Fajar Prayer.
4. The establishment of Bait-ul-Maal (State’s treasury for people) was one of his major achievements.
5. A proper judicial system was established, where Magistrates and Judges would have courts and would decide on cases.
6. Army headquarters were established for protection of country.
7. Canals and roads were constructed.
8. The Imams, Teachers and Moazzins were given pay in schools and Mosques.
9. Prisons and Police station were built.
10. The first Islamic Lunar calendar was established and the Hijrah system was initiated.
11. Population census was made.
12. Welfare homes and orphanages were built.

13. He ordered to maintain light in all Mosques during night times.
14. He introduced the Canal System for agriculture and irrigation system.
15. He first time made the Army FOB's (Forward operating bases) and laid the foundation of military departments and a complete organization system.
16. He first time in the world ordered to give funds and benefits while appointing regular salaries for infants and widows.
17. He first time in the world introduced the Post office system.
18. He first time conceptualized proper uniforms for Police.

These are mere sparks of events and attributes associated with the great Caliph Umer R.A. while a tremendous history and list of achievements remains firm in record. This article was to revive your faith and inspiration in our former leaders this Ramzan and to remind you the power of a single common and a poor child who carried himself with confidence and finally acceded authority to a “magnificent” level.

Read more about the magnificent Caliph Umer R.Z. this Ramadan to gain major inspiration. Reflect practically on the good attributes of the conqueror, Umer R.A. since Ramadan is the best month to adopt lasting changes, discipline and strength.