Implications of Terrorism in Pakistan

(Imran Shermila , Chiniot)

Heavy Human loss
Terrorism not only damaged the social fabric of Pakistan but also became the cause of uncertainty with the people have been physiologically affected by it. The immediate consequences of terrorism are human and economic loss but the fact is that the whole society of Pakistan is affected with terrorism and political instability. Not only terrorists but also the government is responsible for promoting terrorism in Pakistan because government has been issuing the licenses to those who are associated with their political parties and support them in election days. The big dilemma of Pakistani government is this that the children are being used in terrorist activities. Why the government of Pakistan seems facing challenges? When we study the Pakistan we get many facts that are affecting on social fabrics. The first and foremost reason is the government instability, protests and strikes on daily basses, lawlessness, political blame games, police terrorism, insecurity, energy crisis, economic deprivation, black marketing and no check and balance on different commodities.

A report present to Supreme Court by a spy agency in which the spy agency told the Supreme Court that Pakistan has lost 49,000 lives since the 9/11 and the report covered to two period first was 2001 to 2008 between this period 24000 people were killed including civilian and security officials due to terrorist attacks when the last five years period was very costlier as compared to the (2001-2008) because the people were killed in last fiver years 25000 in terrorist attacks. It has been told by the attorney for the intelligence agencies to the court in a report. Not only the civilian has becoming the victims but also the Pakistan armed forces is sacrificing more the 15,681 the soldiers in tribal areas with fighting the Talban militants since 2008. Civilian causalities in bomb blast are more than 5152 while the injuries are 5678 up to 2008. (M. Raja, 3013). A Senator Haji Ghulam Ali criticized the west Foreign Policy because Pakistan has been sacrificed more than 49000 people in War and Terror and has to spoiled its economic and social fabrics but the west is providing the free trade zone to the Bangladesh, Bhutan, Srilanka and Maldives. He regretted that the foreign debt of Egypt and other countries were written off but Pakistan was not granted this facility. (Staff Reporter)

Terrorism not only affected the civilians but also affected the military persons, police forces, government entities, media persons, foreign visitors and also the cricketers. A non stop serious of terrorist attacks badly affected the human life. Terrorists attacked the foreign visitors in Gilgit valley and these foreigners lost their lives in these incidents.

Deteriorating Economic Conditions
State without sound economy is like a sick animal because the economic activities provide the financial blood to the depreciative economy. Pakistan is a developing country and is on the rank of 17th of world in GDP per capita income but less stable due to lawlessness, insecurity, uncertainty, trade policy and terrorism is the main reason of poor economy. While the developed countries have better economic opportunities, market and have the capacity to bear the terrorism loss and also provide the necessary incentive to absorb the terrorism effect. The developing and underdeveloped countries are not in this position to bear terrorism loss itself because these countries are dependent on other independent countries. (S. Haider, N. Akram & I. Ul Haq pada, 2015)

A collection of rules and regulations made by the public officials who are relevant to trade is called the trade policy. A trade policy formulate after the evaluation of state available resources that which would be appropriate for the nation. When they formulate any policy they develop the consciences about this policy and the some major polices discuss at the time of annual budget in the assembly. The policy maker follow the international patterns because the trade directly engage with other internationally through import and export and they policy maker must draw taxes, tariffs and quotas can all be part of a nation’s trade policy. (P. Khalil, N. Rafiq, M. Yousaf, Z. Ali, S. Shahid & M. Naveed, 2012)

Terrorism has become major threat to economy and business nationally and internationally. Terrorism affects business by many ways of death, damage of infrastructures, impact on imports and exports, markets ups and downs, FDI, increasing risk perception, reducing confidence, uncertainty and flow of investment to other economic zone. The war on terror has negatively affected Pakistani economy because Pakistan is a developing country and seems less develop always since the day of its independence however Pakistan was not in this position to absorb the economic loss after the 9/11 and keep stable its economy. (W.Ali, 2013, April, 18)

Investors are hesitating to invest in Pakistan because the security situation is a not satisfactory of law enforcement agencies. It is the duty of government to provide the security to the local investors and foreign investors. Karachi, the former capital of Pakistan, is considered the hub of economics but it has become the most insecure place of Pakistan because of target killing, kidnapping, blackmailing, gang war and terrorism. Now we can say Karachi has become the city of criminals. In this city criminals have been settled and are engaged in different types of criminal activities after the 9/11. It has been observed that most economic opportunities have abandon by the terrorist activities. Developed countries are not much affected, as developing countries are affected by terrorism, because the terrorists’ attacks are not frequent there. If any attack happens, they rehabilitate it due to large economic market and better managements and law and order institutions.

Although Pakistan is under developed country and is based on agriculture but unfortunately from the last two decades it has been facing many challenges internally and externally in which one of them which is the most important is terrorism. It has impacts on politics, economics and social life. Due to political instability, the government is unable to give attention on economic development and economic reforms because the government is trying to improve security system and want to defeat the terrorism. So the attention of Pakistani government has diverted after the 9/11 because the Pakistan has joined the war on terror.

Terrorists are not only damaging the political system but also destroying the whole economy of Pakistan with target killing, suicide bombing, and kidnapping. Terrorism not only Reduce the confidence but also increase the risk perception among the local investors and foreign investors .So it the fact that Pakistan has become very insecure place for the businessmen, Therefore the investors give preference to invest in Bangladesh, India, south east Asia and United Arab Emirates instead of Pakistan. Before the 9/11 and the Mushraf era, the European Union was interested to invest in industrial sectors of Pakistan especially in garments but after the 9/11Pakistan has become victim of terrorism itself and did not provide the secure economic zone to foreign investors and the investors have gone away from the Pakistan due to the threat of increasing loss.

The terrorists have linkages with each other and have to provide tanning, sharing information, providing logistic support and financial assistance. The question arises here that why the phenomenon of terrorism occurred and why the people have become terrorists and what are the reasons of behind terrorism? The phenomenon of the terrorism has occurred due to many reasons in Pakistan, socio-economic injustice, poverty, illiteracy, corruption and political instability is the reason of terrorism. After the joining of war on terror, Pakistan has been directly involved with counter terror policy and has been playing its role effectively to curb terrorism. Militant groups however have started the terrorism in Pakistan with a very strong reaction.

Political and economic deprivations are the main root causes of terrorism. Terrorism occurs when people are not granted the economic and political rights or the certain groups or people. The deprivation encourages the effected groups to adopt the violent ways. According to well known philosopher Aristotle had agreed on the assertion stating that “poverty is mother of terrorism and Revolution”. Economic reforms, fundamental and political rights should be ensured for the masses and should try to improve the living standard of human life. Unequal distribution of wealth, resources, political rights, economic opportunities and property are also the root causes of terrorism in Pakistan. Only the 20% of people have captured the 80% of the total resources and the 80% having 20% of total resources and are leading average life but 35-50% of Pakistani people are spending their lives below the poverty line.

When we analyze the poverty in Pakistan at provincial level, it tells us that the poverty in Baluchistan is 52% that is very high as compare to other provinces, similarly the poverty in Sindh 33%, in KPK 32% and in Punjab19%. There is an urgent need to develop Baluchistan and provide all the basic facilities to them. KPK and Sindh are also demanding attention of the government to develop and provide the basic necessities these provinces. All have greater impact on our socio-political and economic issues of Pakistan. A lock of coordination among the provincial government is not only declining the social indicator of Pakistan but also becoming the cause of ethnic conflict. According to World Bank report of 2010-2011 Pakistan’s poverty reached up to 70% after disasters but the government not responded on this report. If SDPI and World Bank figures are correct then it shows that 120 million Pakistani souls are under poverty trap (below the poverty line), which is highly alarming situation. (A, Khuwaja, 2012)

These small issues have been converted into violent forms of terrorism when the government did not take initiative in time and does not rehabilitate the effected people. It not only creates the sense of fear but also damages the mental growth of human beings. These days, Pakistan is going through the critical situation and facing the similar challenges because the terrorism has damaged the mental growth of human beings. Behavioral change happened in the society because frustration has become very common among the people, on the other hand the role of media is not as satisfactory as it should be, however the media is a reliable source for information but the negative factor is this, it provides the extra coverage to the militant groups and highlights the terrorist incidents with live coverage, play the video of dead bodies and wounded people that is very dreadful, so the role of news channels should be constructive.

Investment and international trade are highly correlated with each other but the terrorism has negative impacts on financial system and international trade .However the assistance that was provided to Pakistan in the aftermath participation Afghan war and the war against terrorism is in the form of aid, grants and debt rescheduling etc. It had positive impacts on the economic growth for short time but it could not sustain further because the allied forces in the beginning got many successes but after short time, terrorists have gone underground and adopted the strategy of guerrilla warfare and they have done heavy losses with limited resources.

When they did not achieve the desired objectives, then all types of assistant has been reduced by the United States. There are many reasons that cut down the financial assistance, military assistance and economic aid. First reason was the lack of trust on each other because the United States think tanks believe that the Pakistan is the big sponsor of terrorism and Pakistan provide safe roots to the terrorist organizations and is not sincere with the allied forces whether western allies have to approve the debt reschedule , financial assistance and economic aid.

The fact is that Pakistan considered that US is not a reliable and doesn’t have trust on west because her past experience with United States was not good. Because after the cold war United States had left the Pakistan at the mercy of militant groups and imposed the sanctions because the Pakistan was acquiring the nuclear arsenals and United States did not want this that Pakistan acquire the nuclear technology. After achieving his objectives in Afghanistan, United States returned back to home, but United States did not know that what will be the consequences of the production of Talban after this war, somehow Pakistan survived in this all scenario with the economic sanctions but with the 9/11 incidents again provided the chance to Pakistan to become the front ally and join the war on terror with US.

The international community has lifted the sanctions and provides the financial assistance and reschedule the debt of Pakistan which has positive impacts on economic growth from 2002 to 2005 but with the 2007 the economic growth slowed down and GDP fall from 7.7% to 6.7% and continually fall down in 2009 the GDP was 1.7 % .Why the economic growth and GDP fall down whether the Pakistan is the front line ally in the war on terror? Because the United States has imposed the conditions on aid, the first reason is lack of trust and 2nd is misuse of this aid. No doubt in Pakistan corruption is the main challenge after the terrorism and energy crisis. So the Pakistani government wastes the national resources due to unnecessary protocol, unnecessary foreign visits, luxury vehicles, luxury apartments, precious gifts and delay on implementation of any project.

Graph of GDP since 2001 to 2014

Why the United States imposed the condition with the financial and economic aid? The United states and the its allies want the transparent use of this aid in Pakistan because Pakistani government waste the resources on unnecessary protocols and these protocols not only make hostage the visiting areas large area but also the community suffers from due to these protocols. Pakistani delegations traveled with the PM or the President including with staff to visit abroad. Very panic matter is this, a government announces a project and start the work on that announced project but as the government changes and power shift to other government as the project which is in process bring to a close because of contradiction or the newly created government doesn’t like after the completion of this project credit goes to the previous government this is because of contradiction.

Various corruption scandals were highlighted on different news channels and in newspapers but all these are fruitless. The presence of Osama Bin Laden in Pakistan has become the question mark for the Pakistani government and the security agencies. According to US-Pak business council report (2009) a report published with cooperation of United States and Pakistan in 2009 that is called business council report which stated that Pakistan has become the prime victim of Afghan instability and its gross domestic gross production consistently falling. The share of agriculture in the gross domestic production is also not satisfactory and falling down gradually .Economic survey of Pakistan report shows that 25.9 percent of GDP in 1999-2000 but after the 9/11 its share reduces gradually to 21.3 percent in 2007-2008.

Foreign Direct Investment
Foreign Direct Investment provides the financial blood to any economy and with this create the now jobs for the locals. FDI not only boost the economy of any country bust also, provide the managerial skills, develop the new infrastructure and improve the technology of that country. At that time FDI is essential for Pakistan to reestablish its economic activities after the great war with terrorists, now again Pakistan is ready to facilitate foreign inventors and ready to improve its technology, managerial skills, strengthen its industrial sectors, enhancing productivity and output, improving balance of payments, foreign exchange reserves, physical infrastructure and human resources and ultimately achieving higher rate of economic growth. (J. Zahid, 2013)

Most of the developing and developed countries in the world adopted aggressive economic strategies to get better the economic growth rate for real domestic product. Political stability and economic growth are highly interlinked to each other, if there is political instability, the growth rate will be low and in Pakistan political system seems very unstable due to military intervention and terrorist activities. No doubt Pakistan is a nuclear power and its military is known the best military of the world but its interference in the politics cannot be ignored. Because the military, many times had to take over the government and established their own government which increased the risk perception and reduced the confidence and had immediate impacts on Foreign Direct Investment and also on the all types of economic activities such as export, exchange rate and local investment. On the other hand economic activities are also affected due to terrorism because any terrorist incidents increase the risk perception and lose the confidence of the investors because of the objectives of the terrorist groups to destabilize the government when the government destabilizes the rate of economic growth and it becomes low.

Ministry of commerce formulates the trade policy. So it is the responsibility to bring the trade reforms not for the local investors but also for the foreign investors. FDI can be increased if the government offers the liberal trade policies with good security, good infrastructure and good economic environment. After the 9/11 incident the foreign Direct Investment immediately stopped inward to Pakistan because the United States and the allied forces attacked on Afghanistan which is existed in the neighbor of Pakistan. After that Pakistan also has to join the allied forces and became the front line partner by joining the war on terror and the war was started in the neighbor of Pakistan.

Unfortunately Pakistan shares the border with Afghanistan and doesn’t make ensure the surveillance this area when the war started, the risk perception increased. Once again Pakistan has engaged in the proxy war but this time against her own former ally Talban. As Pakistan joined the war on terror within Pakistan, resistance movements started against the government, it has become the other reason to stop the inflow of investment. With the terrorist attacks in Pakistan not only the foreign investor but also the local investors started to withdraw their investments from Pakistan and they preferred to invest in Bangladesh, United Arab Emirates and in South East Asia .The FDI decreases with the passage of time. With the decrease of FDI, economic activities also decreased because FDI and economic growth are interconnected with each other. If the FDI increases, the economic condition flourish, it creates the opportunities for others and if the FDI decreases the economic condition, it becomes the reason of unemployment.

Pakistan has never experienced a trade surplus but they can reduce the trade deficit to impose the heavy tariff on imports and also increase the exports. Multinational Corporations have the ability to crowd out the domestic investments by raising cheap funds in the host countries. The efficient and more effective allocation of FDI is possible if the host country provides a pro-trade infrastructure and solid policies. Before the 9/11 and the joining the war on terror, the inflow of Foreign Direct Investment was very remarkable but with the military cope and after terrorist incidents, the European consignment and many orders have been cancelled. The European Union supported the democracy but at that time the government of the dictator General Parvez Mushraf established and the European Union ordered to replace aid of Pakistan with Bangladesh. However the government has failed to stop the terrorist incidents and terrorism. So many multinational companies have to wind up their business from Pakistan and settled in Singapore, Malaysia, Bangladesh, India, Hong Kong and in United Arab Emirates. At that time, the FDI was present in the country. They could introduce the trade reforms and attract the foreigners but they unfortunately were engage in the war on terror.

Empirical study indicates the perception of risk, uncertainty and war discourages the Foreign Direct Investment but the case of Pakistan is quite different. FDI inflow into Pakistan increased subsequently after the 2002 but when the war cost jumped from $ 2.669 million in 2001-2002 to $ 17. 8 Billion, By 2010-2011.

Derailing Pak-India Peace Process
Kashmir was a disputed area between Pakistan and India and it has become a permanent issue between them. Kashmir was a Muslim populated area ruled by Hindu Maharaja Hari Singh where Muslims are in majority while the Hindus are in minority. At the time of independence both countries India and Pakistan, the Maharaja of Kashmir preferred to remain independent without association to India or Pakistan. Maharaja Heri Singh offered a standstill agreement to both India and Pakistan which is accepted by Pakistan but rejected by India. So at this agreement, the Pakistani forces were dispatched into Kashmir but the Pushton tribes invaded to Kashmir. The Maharaja requested to India to provide the military assistance for safeguard of Kashmir. The Indian Prime Minister was read to provide the financial assistance but the acting Governor General Lord Mountbatten advised the Maharaja to accede to India and also signed the treaty of accessions to the Union of India on 26 Oct, 1947. Both India and Pakistan have fought many wars on the issue of Kashmir which is still unresolved.

When we study the Kashmir after 9/11 it comes in our knowledge due to war on terror, India will get maximum benefits with the change of international opinion in its favor against terrorism. India advocated the US to include the Kashmir issue in its war on terror priority due to attack on state assembly in Srinagar on 1st Oct 2001. In this attack 27 people killed and subsequent attack on the Indian parliament on Dec, 13, 2001. Therefore for 10 months military was deputed on borders between two countries. . (U. Javed, 2014). With this incident the Indian government tried to get international support against the terrorism and gave the perception that Pakistan is involved in terrorist’s attacks both in India and Kashmir. During Parvez Mushraf regime composite dialogue for peace started between India and Pakistan after a meeting in Islamabad, in which Islamabad meeting both countries member Parveez Mushraf and Atal Behari Vajpayee were determined to resolve all the issues including the Kashmir in spite of many ups and downs in 2004.

Kashmir, according to the Partition formula, was likely to be part of Pakistan but the Indian government acted otherwise and occupied a large part of the state by military action. The people of Kashmir have invariably been challenging this occupancy, initially through peaceful means and subsequently by armed resistance. Islamabad stands with the opinion that the people of Kashmir should have the right to decide their destiny in a fair and free plebiscite under the relevant United Nations Security Council (UNSC) resolutions. (Gaershdma, n.d)

The ‘covert’ US engagement with Islamabad, Delhi and Kashmiries is no longer a secret. Washington has expressed its desire at number of times to settle the Kashmir issue within the existing territorial parameters but with minor realignment. It views that India has a potential and a rival to China, not only in the region but also in global affairs. After the 9/11, a number of events occurred that favored New Delhi. Mumbai was attacked in 2008 by ten Pakistani terrorists in which 173 were killed and 308 were wounded. The sole survived gunman Ajmal kasab was arrested during the attack and was found to be a Pakistani national. During interrogation, it was proved that this terrorist attack was planned by Lashker e Taiba, which is existed in Pakistan and is working for the liberation of Kashmir. Indian government is of the opinion that Kashmir is the integral part of India.

Under the international pressure, the president Mr. Parveez Mushraf defined the parameters for Kashmir struggle. We will never budge an inch from our principle stand on Kashmir. Kashmir issue will be resolved by dialog and by peaceful negotiations with the wishes of Kashmiri people and the united nation resolution. Pakistan always looked at Kashmir struggle as freedom struggle. Islamabad strongly supported the self determination for the Kashmir’s and pledged moral, political, and diplomatic support to the Kashmir cause. After the 9/11 concerted efforts were made that war on terror should not affect the Kashmir’s fight for the right of self determination. 2007 Smajhotta express was attacked on 8 February in which at least 68 people were killed in this incident.

The sole surviving gunman Ajmal Kasab who was arrested during the attacks was found to be a Pakistani national. This fact was acknowledged by Pakistani authorities. In May 2010, an Indian court convicted him on four counts of murder, waging war against India, conspiracy and terrorism offences, and sentenced him to death. India blamed the Lashkar-e-Taiba, a Pakistan-based militant group, for planning and executing the attacks. Islamabad resisted the claims and demanded evidence. India provided evidence in the form of interrogations, weapons, candy wrappers, Pakistani Brand Milk Packets, and telephone sets. Indian officials demanded Pakistan extradite suspects for trial. They also said by giving the sophistication of the attacks that the perpetrators must have had the support of some official agencies in Pakistan.

Both India and Pakistan have launched several mutual confidence-building measures (CBMs) to ease tensions between the two. These include more high-level talks, easing visa restrictions, and restarting of cricket matches between the two. The new bus service between Srinagar and Muzaffarabad has also helped bring the two sides closer. Pakistan and India have also decided to co-operate on economic fronts. An Indian man held in Pakistani prisons since 1975 as an accused spy walked across the border after freedom on 3rd March 2008.It was an unconditional release that Pakistan said was done to improve relations between the two countries.

On 10 February 2011, India agreed to resume talks with Pakistan which were suspended after 26/11 Mumbai Attacks. India had put on hold all the diplomatic relations saying it will only continue if Pakistan will act against the accused of Mumbai attacks. On 13 April 2012 there was a thaw in relations when India gained MFN status in the country, India announced the removal of restrictions on FDI investment from Pakistan to India. (web)

The US needed India-Pak cooperation to fight its war on terrorism. Hence it did not include the Kashmir in war on terror as per suggested by India but persistent pressure was on Pakistan to address Indian concerns on terrorism. While the United States considered it the source hub of terrorism and offered the unconditional support of US, all material and operational support for the military camps. US supported the Mushraf proposal of self governance, de-militarization and joint management. The cost of the conflicts has been increasingly unbearable for all involved members. According to the official estimates, some 40,000 lives have been lost since the onset of insurgency in 1989, though other estimates put the toll much higher. Large-scale displacement was done from different parts of the state is an integral part of the Kashmir conflict. An estimated one million people have been displaced in the state due to militancy. (D. A.Mahapatra & S. Shekhawat, 2006)

Declining Education Standard
Education doesn’t mean to provide the degree but the actual purpose of education is to change the behavior of the people and make the people of this able to differentiate between wrong and right that what is right and what is wrong?, not only for their but also others, share the experiences and provide the skills but at that time Education has become a profitable business which is providing the only degrees and producing the aggressive generations. According to realist school of thought men is not good by nature, when any state does not provide the basic needs and necessary education to their people then they receive the alarming results that create the challenge for the whole world.

Terrorism also affected the educational system of Pakistan and terrorists also targeted the schools, colleges and universities. One of the most prominent examples is of Malala Yousf Zai. She is one of the million affected school girls and school boys in Federal Administrative Tribal Area, Swat and other areas of Pakistan. The terrorist organizations targeted the schools, colleges and universities and many students lost their lives because the terrorists wanted to implement their ideology. They consider that school education misguides the local bodies and this is against the Sharia. Therefore they should attack the girl’s school in tribal areas.

While the most horrible incidents was the couple of suicide attacks on the international Islamic University Islamabad ,in which six innocent people passed away including three female students in October. The enrollment of new students in Pakistan is very low due to security reasons, poverty and lack of awareness. In tribal areas, people are not ready to send their children in schools due to terrorist incidents. The female enrollment in education sector is very low as compare to male students because the parents consider that it is a waste of time and resources. They think that their participation in the Pakistani society is not as satisfactory as there is the west. After getting the education, they will busy in the house, so there is an urgent need to educate the parents with different sources, packages and advertisements.

International organizations are interested in Pakistan to improve the education sector and to increase the literacy rate while the terrorists are not in the favor of social education. Therefore they attacked on school buses, Mangora, Sawat, 9 October 2012. A gunman attacked on bus near the Mangora in which Malala Yousf Zai was seriously injured by gunshot and two other school students were injured. The report also revealed that 1030 schools and colleges were destroyed by Talban insurgents in Khyber Pakhtunkhaw from 2008 to 2013. Although females have fundamental rights to get education and can differentiate between good and evils and they should serve not only the country, (M. Raja, 2013) but also the local community when they become doctors because a female doctor can better understand the female problems and can also treat them properly. There is a need to introduce the reforms in tribal areas and provide the economic, educational and social opportunities and to develop these areas from all aspects.

At that level, the government should coordinate the local Mullas and make ensure to convey the real concept of Islam to the local communities and by assigning the duty to the Mullas to educate them about the fundamental rights of both male and female. There should be no objection on any type of education because in Islam there is a Hades “to get education even if you have to go to China” Islam does not give the concept to get only Islamic education but also encourages to get every type of education. Already in Pakistan literacy rate is not up to the mark. On the other hand, insurgency and other issues are creating bad effects on education system. Results of our education system are not good due to lack of interest. There is no proper security and insufficient budget is allocated for the education sector.

After joining the war on terror, the cost of war on terror has been increased because of higher insurance cover while the cost of Pakistan involvement in this war on terror amounts $ 67.93 billion or Rs 5037 billion which has affected the education budget. Economics firmly opine that Pakistan needs to get out of this war immediately. We can earn a lot of revenue from tourism and unemployment can be reduced in these areas because majority of these areas enhance the tourism industry but after the 9/11 and joining the war on terror Pakistan not only became the unsafe place but also a place of threat when the allied states prohibited their natives to travel towards Pakistan. It destroyed the Pakistan tourism industry and increased the unemployment.

Live broadcasting of terrorist activities and incidents has become the cause of physiological effects not only on the local community but also on the international community. Due to this reason, people are bound to their homes. Pakistan at this time should play very constructive role and should remove the threat from the minds of community and international community and should try to promote the education, sports activities and should fight for the educational promotion. It is the flaw of Pakistan that there are only 51 Universities in which mostly are situated in urban areas. It creates the problems for majority students because universities are situated on the divisional level .If the government is really interested to improve the literacy rate, then at least one university must be build at District level.

Government should try to maintain balance between Islamic education and state education not only in NWFP and FATA but also in many other areas which are affected by terrorism. On one side the terrorism decreased the Pakistan literacy rate and on the other hand government herself pushes back the literacy rate due to the lack of interest in education sector. The government doesn’t allocate the sufficient budget for education. Another reason is this; there is no proper check and balance over the education sectors. There are many schools in which many teachers are absent from schools. So the government should ensure the attendance of the teachers through biometric system. It should assign the duty to the District Coordinator Officer to check the attendance at his own office on both arrival and departure times. The primary education setup of Baluchistan, FATA and NWFP is not satisfactory due to terrorism. So the government must pay attention and try to improve the basic education system in this area.

Literacy rate varies in Pakistan regionally due to many reasons such as lack of resources, lack of government attention and lack of awareness. Some areas in Pakistan are developed and there literacy rate is sufficient like Islamabad literacy rate is 96% when the literacy rate in Kohlu district is 28% that is alarming. When we analyze the literacy rate between Urban and Rural areas, the people belong to Urban area are more educated and the literacy rate in Urban areas is sufficient when the literacy rate is alarming in Rural areas due lack of awareness among them and the lack of access to the resources. A survey conducted in which they got different age groups and through their report the literacy rate among the age group 55 to 64 was 38%, age groups 45 to 54 was 46%, age group 25 to 34 57% and the age group 15 to 24 was 72% during 2002 to 2004. (Education in Pakistan, n.d)

Dissipating Tourism Industry
Through tourism, not only we can exchange our culture but also can pass through different experiences. We can get the opportunity to learn something about culture, people, area and nature. When we travel, we make the contact with unknown people and we are ambitious to know about different culture, language, history and their traditions. Tourism is a learning process in which we share our culture, language and we get the knowledge about nature and nature elements form lack views, flowing river water, fertile lands, forests and high mountains.

A success of any tourist industry to provide the safe and pleasant environment to the tourists because a safe and healthy environment shows the ability of this country and it is widely accepted by the international community. While the many countries spend millions on their market to attract the tourists however the visitors are hesitate to select the country. (V. Chahucan & S. Khanna, 2008)

Geographically and strategically Pakistan is an important country and is located in South Asia, the specialty of Pakistan is this that people here enjoy four seasons: summer, winter, autumn and spring that is the blessing of God. Pakistan is an attractive land for tourists due to its geographical location because it is famous for its lush green plains, deserts, mountains, rivers and lakes and due its great monuments. Pakistan not only attracts the local tourists but also attracts the foreigners and is doing lot of efforts to promote the industry of tourism. Majority of the tourists visit the northern sides due to lush greenery and mountainous area while many people like to visit the historical places where the monuments of the great rulers and worriers can also be seen. Unfortunately the Pakistan terrorism industry has been destroyed by terrorist with terrorist incidents.

Nine foreign tourists excluding one Pakistani killed in the Himalaya Gilgit-Baltistan in which there were five Ukrainians and other were Chinese while according to official report, the only one Chinese survivor has been recovered. Threke Talban Pakistan has claimed responsibility for the killing. (S. Mir, 2013) While the whole country condemned the attack especially those who are the lovers of nature or environment but the incident raised the serious questions about security failure and embarrassed the country. It is fact that Pakistan is already facing the poor image due to terrorism. Before this incident, Sawat became the base camp for the terrorists and has become the attractive place for them. With the consent of Pakistan government, military launched operation against the terrorists groups in these areas and cleared it successfully from the terrorists and now again the local government and the federal government is putting lot of efforts to normalize the life in Sawat for the tourists.

Hotels in these tourist places especially in Northern Areas, Sawat and Chitral were closed for all kinds of tourists because the security threats were very high and the people or businessmen who associated with tourist industry suffered a lot. After the wave of terrorism, people have been bound to their houses and this situation sustains not only for locals but also for the foreigners. They were not ready to visit Pakistan for tourist places. After the 9/11 United States and the United Kingdom had issued warning to stop their citizen’s visit to Pakistan. This warning had been issued due to the security concerns.

Pakistan is rich for its culture, history and civilization. People also visit Pakistan due to its culture and civilization. Every province has a unique culture, heritage, language and history which make it different from each other. In these areas, different languages are used in different areas in Pakistan but the terrorism has damaged the industry of tourism and has become victims thousands of people including foreigners. When Pakistan joined the war on terror ultimately affect the Pakistan tourism because more then hundred local guest houses shut down in Northern Areas. Similarly the tourism activity had minimized in Swat and Chitral because many militant groups were active after the joining war on terror and they were declared the war against the Pakistan forces and banned the entry for all local and foreigner tourists. While a warring issued by many countries for their citizen and intimate them to prevent the visit for Pakistan especially Northern Areas. At that time these militant groups tried to impose the ideology of local peoples and had also banned the all social activity of women.

Frittering Sport Activities
Sports not only refresh the mind of man but also provide a healthy nation but unfortunately Pakistan sports have been damaged due to terrorism. Sports teams of other countries not ready to visit Pakistan and their attention shifted to Bangladesh, India and Middle East due to security concerns. A terrorist attack carried out on Sri Lankan team on 3rd July, 2009 when a bus was carrying Sri Lankan Cricketers in Lahore near the Gaddafi stadium, meanwhile the terrorists attacked on cricketers carrying bus in this attack.6 members of Sri Lankan Cricket team were injured, 6 Pakistani Policemen and 2 civilians were killed in this attack. (Attach on national Sri Lankan team, 2009) Already many international Cricket teams have refused to play with Pakistan due to security concerns after 9/11, although Pakistan is a front ally of war on terror.

During a test series between Pakistan and New Zeeland the terrorist conducted a suicide bomb attack outside the hotel where the New-Zeeland cricketers were accommodated. After this incident they abundant the test series and sent back to their homeland. After the 9/11 the Australian team was not willing to ply in the Pakistani grounds because they considered the security arrangement is not sufficient. The Indian team had refused visit in Pakistan after the Mumbai attack so with the replacement of India Sri Lankan team visited the Pakistan. Pakistan many time offered he high security arrangements International Cricket teams to visit the Pakistan and promote the International Cricket once again. The local militant groups heated this type of activity and considered against the Islam therefore thy forbidden many times but the July, 2009 attack totally destroyed the Pakistani sports.

Now it has become the responsibility of international organizations, US and western allies to arrange international tournaments in Pakistan and rehabilitate the sports activities in Pakistan. In this perspective, they should encourage the western cricket teams to visit the Pakistan and help to decrease the level of insecurity because this is the motive of the terrorist groups to create threat and after the Sri Lankan team incident they have succeeded. The world cup 2011 was to be co-hosted by Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka but after the 2009 attack, the Sri Lankan team and International Cricket Council forced to strip Pakistan of its hosting rights.

After the 9/11 not only Pakistan Cricket but also other sports in Pakistan have been affected by terrorism and Pakistan have become isolated in sports field, although the Pakistan had won cricket world cup , hockey world cup, Snooker world cup and Squash world cup. Now the Pakistan has a need to get international attention to get the opportunity again hosting and promoting the sports activities. International community should play to role for promoting the sports activities because it will divert the attention of the Pakistanis people who are suffering from the terrorist activities and have been bound to their homes. Their economic activities have disturbed because many businesses are interlinked with the sports.

Imran Khan now the Chairman of Pakistan Tahrek e Insaf and the ex cricketer of Pakistan cricket team criticized the policy of Parvez Mushraf the former President of Pakistan blindly joined the war and terror against the terrorism due to effect the social, economic, supports and tourism industries of Pakistan. Now the Pakistan is suffering because Mushraf follow the United States polices that Mushraf would not join, now the fact is this many tourists and cricket teams have refused to visit in Pakistan due to security reasons and terrorism. (Hassan, 2011)

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