Pakistan-india conflicts

(Shahzadi Horain, )

Introduction:
Conflict means discord or disagreement between people, groups,etc. The conflict between India and Pakistan is armed conflict. Under international law an armed conflict occurs when one or more states have a recourse to armed force against another state, regardless of the reasons or the intensity of this confrontation. No formal declaration of war or recognition of the situation is required.
India Pakistan conflict is one of the longest unresolved conflict of modern times . The conflict between India and Pakistan started only a few years after after the two states partitioned in 1947. When British-India got its independence it was primarily divided into two countries ,india and Pakistan. All areas with the majority of Muslim population was supposed to be part of Pakistan.
Reasons of armed conflict between the states:
1. Kashmir
The Kashmir is the biggest cause of conflict between India and Pakistan. After petition Indian Pakistan were two nations. However there were some princely states and they were left to make their own decision to join Pakistan or India or remain independent. The majority of the people of Kashmir wanted to join Pakistan. However the then rulers of Kashmir were the stooges of India who betrayed their nation in this affair. Later on this conflict was taken to the international forums like United nation and various resolutions have been passed so far on this conflict but to no fruition.
2. Security
Both countries have been accusing each other on posing a threat for the national security. India accused Pakistan security agencies for supporting the militant attack in recent years such as Indian parliament house in year 2001. However later on it was revealed that such attacks were an inside job.
3. Waters and dams
Many many rivers flow from India to the Pakistan territory. Pakistan claims that India is not playing fair in terms of use of Waters according to the treaties already fight by both countries.
4. Faith and beliefs
Both countries have their religious beliefs. The foundation of Pakistan was laid down on the basis of religion. Rise of Hinduism in India have made anti-Pakistan ideology more strong.
Highlights of the conflict
THE 1965 WAR
BOTH COUNTRIES CAME FACE-TO-FACE IN 1965 BUT AGREED THIS IS FAR UNDER THE UN GUIDANCE. BOTH STATES SIGNED AN AGREEMENT IN TASHKENT[ USSR] TO RESOLVE THE CONFLICT IN PEACEFUL MANNER.

1971 WAR
IN A CIVIL CONFLICT ,INDIA HELPED INSURGENTS OF EAST PAKISTAN,MODERN DAY BANGLADESH .

KARGIL WAR
INDIA ACCUSED PAKISTAN OF HELPING KASHMIRI REBELS ACROSS LINE OF CONTROL.

Recent conflict

Revocation of Article370 by Indian government which resulted in hot debates and discussions and eventually resulted in United Nations Security Council passing a resolution on the Kashmir conflict.

Balakot surgical strike: 2019 balakot air strike was conducted by India when Indian war planes crossing the de facto border in the disputed region of Kashmir.
Two Indian airforce planes were shot down and one pilot captured by Pakistan in retaliation .
My suggestion
There is no doubt in it that kashmir is a nuclear flash point between India and Pakistan as both the states are nuclear power .
There is a strenuous need to end the conflict and this can be achieved amicably by:
1- India must stop genocide,demographic changes and human rights violation in kashmir .
2- As the majority of population of Kashmir is muslims ,so as per the popular opinion of Kashmiris and the two nation theory,kashmiri people have always been inclined to join pakistan.
3- IndiaIndia must pull back millions of occupational forces from kashmir.
4- must held plebiscite(as suggested by united nations) in the state of kashmir.

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