Unfolding the Turkish coup

(Muhammad Rizwan Tahir, )

“Manifestos become irrelevant, media responds like a mature giant bound not to be erred like stillborn, the boys used to sit on the street corners become less coquettish, one from a clique behaves like a crowned king, publishers shift their focus to some other part-time work, routine days haunt like ceaseless deadly terrorized interminable school days , heinous mugged swarm becomes extremely gravest, all traditional mocking politicians exactly behave like “shaitan (demon) in Ramadan”, political slogans only chant in hearts, clerks act like virgin spinsters not to put nose in the matters relived their knowledge or patience, provoking thoughts become petrified hallucinations full of dust, thirst, humdrum and weariness; when a military coup takes place”.
This was the news published in newspapers right after the failed Turkish coup. Before getting deeper into the issue, let me tell you; either the state affairs are managed and run by democratically elected mandate or dissidently imposed military coup. Off-course, by democratically elected, I truly mean by the will of majority of the dwellers under the impartial surveillance of officials. By and large, coup attempt occurs when any government fails to provide the common needs to its habitants and unable to carry out the state affairs like foreign policy, internal stability, minorities, state oriented development and other public affairs. But, present day turkey has been suffering from agonizing exacerbating dilemma since its independence as modern state. There has been going on an ideological fight between two isolated cliques having the agenda of reconstructing turkey; a state full of secular nationalists and in contrast, Islamic nationalists, precisely.

Before the emergence of modern turkey, there was a whole Ottoman Empire running ceaselessly from centuries. By and by after World War 1, turkey emerged as a traitor chanting the slogans of modern independent secular turkey. Right after WW1, when the Ottoman Empire started to collapse, a “treaty of Sevres” signed in 1920 which carved up the Ottoman Empire into regions and announced the independent territories for the victors of the WW1 and also various places for the sectarians and other religious groups were also granted the lands including the Kurds and America. Subsequently, Mustafa Kamal; an officer of Turkish army started thinking of laying the foundations of modern turkey. So, he instigated the nationalist verbs among the Turks. Under the leadership of Kamal, Turks fought wars against various contributors of the treaty, including the Greeks, Americans, French, Italians and the British. Later, the “treaty of Lausanne” signed in 1923, giving claimants a Modern Turkey.

Since its emergence as modern state, turkey has faced the confrontation vibes of violated disturbance by the ideologically distinct groups. One of the group praises the “Kamalism movement” and other follows the “Islamism movement”. Turkey has been influenced by few renowned public figures including Mustafa Kamal, FethullahGulen and TayyupErdogan.

Doubtlessly, Mustafa Kamal was the one who made possible the agenda of Modern Turkey. He had given the honorary name “Attaturk” meaning the “father of Turks” because of his commendable services for the establishment of “Republic of Turkey” in 1934. He was born in 1884 with name Mustafa, but later his mathematics teacher gave him the name “Kamal” because of his perfection in mathematics. He started his career as a military officer and resided at various designations. He also took part in wars including the World War 1, Balkan wars, Italo-Turkish wars and war of independence. On October 29th 1923, the republic of Turkey was pro-claimed and Kamal laid down his “Kemalist ideology” for the welfare of the Republic of Turkey. Until his death in 1938, he had clearly transformed the pro-claimed Islamic turkey into a secular, modern and democratic country.

On the contrary to Kamal, both FethullahGelun and Tayyuperdogan are Islamist. FethullahGelun was born in 1941 in a religiously rich family. He has been serving as Turkish preacher, imam and write. He belongs to a very humble background with immense Islamic teachings. His father was imam and mother taught the Islamic lessons to the neighboring villages until got banned by the Kemalist government. Gulen is the Founder of notable “Gulen Movement”. Gulen has started his Islamic teachings by saying that, “He is a Muslim who believes in science, multi-party government, interfaith relations and harmony”. Initially, he established relations with renowned Jewish businessmen and bureaucrats. He once said, “Sufism is the inner dimension of Islam and how could inner dimension be possibly different from outer dimension”. He teaches that every Muslim has the responsibility of goodwill regardless of their color, cast, creed, political affiliation, religion or sect and every Muslim should conduct peaceful gravest dialogues not with the “people of the Book” and people from other religions, but also with atheists and agnostics. Due to his teachings and way of sacred imamat, his followers have constructed more than 1000 schools around the globe, which claims to promote the interfaith and transnational dialogues. His “Gulen Movement” have been praised a lot and his followers and well-wishers from media and around the globe have promoted it as a movement of peace, harmony and rudiments of justice. On the other hand, TayyupErdogan is more indulged in public affairs and politics and his involvement played a pivotal rule in the Turkish poltics. He has been enjoying the supremacy after winning with heavy mandate. He has proven himself a mature and workaholic leader who has entirely uplifted the Turkish economy from nowhere to the highest glories.

This is not the first time when turkey is drenched with the deadly fewer of military intervention. Turkey has a long history of military take overs. It started in 1960, when a clique of 38 military officers led by General staged a coup and cleanse the democratically elected government and oust the sitting president of Democrat Party. Dark days of dictatorship ended in 1965, when an elected government took charge. Then in 1971, there was a famous “Coup by memorandum” took place and right-wing islamist and left-wing radical nationalists started fighting each other and that anarchy situation made impossible for the government to run. So, some senior officers from military decided to hijack the system in order to create peace in the country. The 1980 turkish coup was the third attempt, when chief of General took charge of the state and declared martial law in the country due to left and right wing deadly petrified controversies. The consequences of 1993 military coup was even worse than the previous ones.

It was 15th of July when a faction from military tried to oust President TayyupErdogan and wanted to wrap the elected government, but badly failed whilst of a very energetic push. At 10:00 pm, shots heard inside military complex and military activity stated involving the helicopters and tanks without any established orders from chief of the generals or state. Some of the pro-coup soldiers entered into the state broadcast agency (TRT) and forcefully broadcast a statement that, “We hereby declare a martial law in the country under the surveillance of “Committee of Peace at Home”. Everyone in the country will have a right to live with justice and prosperity. All the international agreements are still valid.” Soldiers seized the Bosphorous and fatih sultan Mehmet bridges for delinking the Asia and Europe with Turkey. At 12:00, there spread a rumor that the coup was staged by the members of terrorist organization (FETO) under the direction of FethullahGulen. President TayyupErdogan had been on family trip to south turkey when this incident took place. At 12:11 am on Saturday, president left Mararis and a few minutes later, he addressed the nation via telephone app, advocating the people to resist the coup attempt and defend democracy by making their way into the streets. Between 1:00 to 3:00 am, police departments and security agencies were shot badly by pro-coup elements using helicopters in Ankara. The chief of the generals along with other authoritative personals were kept hostage by the soldiers. The extradition of some soldiers took place. Streets were flowed out with the supporters of TayyupErdogan and started confronting the soldiers. Prime ministers also said in his statement that,” we are still in charge and the staged unsuccessful coup has been tweezered out. The traitors will have to pay a very huge price, surely”. After the landing of the Turk president TayyupErdogan in Istanbul, he said, “Those who tried to revolt will be punished badly and he blamed US-based FathullahGulin for the coup”. Around 9:00 am, majority of the soldiers surrendered themselves. Later, many skirmish incidents took place, but condition had become normal.

In a public gathering after the failed coup, president tayyuperdogan said, “We firmly demand America to extradite the self-exile US-based cleric FethullahGelun for his involvement in the failed coup”. Then, people stated chanting that we want the execution of all the involved rebels. In response to the accusations, FathullahGulen replied, “How could a person who had been damaged so much by the coups think of installing a coup. He called the accusations a very irresponsible narrative”. On the other side, Americans denied the extradition of Gulen and asked Turkey to provide legit evidence of his involvement. Also, they threatened Erdogan that if Turkey has ever tried to reinforce the capital punishment then they will be blacked out from the European Union (EU).

Also, some of the sources claimed the involvement of Kamalism sympathizers. The “Kemalism and Islamism” conspiracy is known to everyone. Mustafa Kamal wanted to transverse turkey into a secular, modern society with no space for the headscarves, whereas islamists countered by implying the Islamic laws in the country. President Tayyuperdogan coalition with FathullahGulan had tried very best to eradicate the kemalist elements from the society and they glorified with victory to some extent. For the sake of the purpose, Erdogan launched “Ergokenan Trials” in 2011 to severely punish the suspected accusatory of the 2003 coup attempt. Unde hut of the trials, 275 accused including the military officials, lawmakers and bureaucrats were sentenced to lengthy imprisonment. In 2013, Gulen accused TayyupErdogan for corruption and involvement of his son too. After that accusation, Erdogan focused on removing the Gulanist elements from Turkey. When Gulen saw things not favoring him, he went to America for political asylum.

This recent military coup failed because of following reasons:
• The coup plotters planned to undertake on the morning of sixteenth but Turkish intelligence got some suspects and plotters had to start the attempt on fifteenth with fragile co-ordination.
• Plotters neither seek any political affiliations for the purpose nor any public support.
• Media played an instrumental role in failing the coup. President, Prime Minister used media to mobilize their supporter. Planners could have easily stopped all the media but inexperience and improper planning had bitten them the dust.
• After Erdogan’s message, all the mosques started praying and that boosted the morale of the public and they started marching towards streets chanting “Allah o Akbar”.
• After the chiefs of both army and naval were arrested, they couldn’t find any support from the military.
Aftermath of the coup reveals the fact of hundreds of detained and sacked officials from different departments. Around 15,200 have suspended from Education ministry and more than 8,777 have suspended from the interior ministry due to allegations of being the facilitators. On the defense side, 17,000 personals have detained including the judges, police officers, soldiers and admirals. Moreover, thousand have been dismissed from religious sectors, TRT news agency, PM office staff, University deans, finance ministry and governors. Millions of Gulen emphasizers have arrested due to accusations of involvement in the failed coup. It is also reported that detainees have treated inhumanly and even rape cases has also witnessed.

This failed military coup would certainty have a pivotal importance on the future of Turkey. It will definitely have a noticeable and explicit impact on the government’s structure and other affairs. This issue will definitely motivate and create consensus with others over the constitution issue which TayyupErdogan has been praising since before his presidency. This will also affect the immature stillborn relationship with the kurds. Turkey will try to establish smooth relations with neighbors as many of its neighbors have condemned the coup attempt and marked it a black day for democracy.

To sum it all, democracy bleeds when a dictator overthrows the sacred mandate of dwellers. As someone said, “Even the worst form of democracy is still better than the dictatorship”.
1. //studies.aljazeera.net/mritems/Documents/2016/7/28/2333ba64771c4a8fbf9b271f709d7865_100.pdf
2. //aa.com.tr/uploads/AnadoluPost/2016/07/22/353954d1733447b17c95bbe02ceb56b7.pdf

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11 Aug, 2016 Views: 394


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