Viral disease in district sanghar on the basis of survey 2019

(Jebran Ali jatt , Nawabshah)

Virus is very small minute organism which is count as non-cellular. It kept at the border line between non livings and living organism and it can be only seen by electronic microscope. It is obligate parasite which cannot grow up on cultural medium. Virus can only reproduce in living cells. Virus was first seen in the plant of tobacco by Mayer in 1886 which is known as TMV. The existence of virus was first observed by Russian virologist. In 1935 W.M Stanley isolated it form tobacco plant. It size is about 20-300 nm. The virus is composed of protein and nuclic acid and it infect only the specific host and it have no cell wall. The newly made viruses infect other cells. There are 219 species of virus are founded by scientists which heavily effected the humans. There are three main parts of virus.(i) Nucleic acid which contain the all information of virus and works as helpful in multiplication (ii) Protein coat (which is also called capsid ) it is covering over the nucleic acid which protect it. (iii) Lipid membrane which is also called envelope which covers the capsid. The viruses which don’t have this envelope are called naked virus. Virus is totally different from bacteria but we know that they both can make us sick. Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a rare and deadly disease most commonly affecting people. Ebola virus was first discovered in 1976 near the Ebola River in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo. Since then, the virus has been infecting people from time to time, leading to outbreaks in several African countries. Ebola virus spreads to people through direct contact with bodily fluids of a person who is sick with or has died from EVD. This can occur when a person touches the infected body fluids (or objects that are contaminated with them), and the virus gets in through broken skin or mucous membranes in the eyes, nose, or mouth. The virus can also spread to people through direct contact with the blood, body fluids and tissues of infected fruit bats or primates. People can get the virus through sexual contact as well.

BODY
Virus is the minute, small and naked organism which is heavily affected to the any part of human body. Virus is an organism which is kept on the border line between the living and non-livings. After visited the basic health unit I observed that Virus makes many diseases in the human body like as hepatitis B mumps, flu, and chicken pox. Its size is very small about 20-300 Nano meter. In given image shows that the virus has three main basic parts which are known as capsid which is also called protein coat second is lipid membrane which is also called envelope and third one is DNA which contain all genetic information. If we compare virus and bacteria to each other than virus is very different from it. The filters which prevent the bacterial cells but it cannot filter the virus due to the huge difference between these two cells. Virus makes many diseases in the body and on the body of humans. There are many viral diseases which appeared on the kin and known as skin disease. For example chicken pox and mumps. The symptoms of chicken pox are including High temperature, aches and headache Loss of appetite or feeding problems. The main and dangerous disease which is appeared in human body is hepatitis B. It is infection of our liver it mostly spreads through blood transmit and through the mother to her child. When the virus of hepatitis B appeared in our body then our skin become yellowish and join pain started and eyes become white.
There are many types of human virus which are described below:-

• Hepatitis B virus:-hepatitis B virus makes infection more than 300 million in all over the world and cause disease in liver and cause liver cancer too. Most adults infected with the virus recover, but 5%–10% are unable to clear the virus and become chronically infected. The hepatitis B virus can be transmitting through infected blood and other body fluid.Which result in more than 1.4 million deaths each year? According to a study done by Pakistan Medical Research Council in 2007-2008, 7.6% Pakistani population suffered with hepatitis B and C, with around 4.8% with hepatitis C only. Government of Pakistan has taken different initiatives like vaccination, patient safety, blood screening, education and awareness about disease but still there is high prevalence of hepatitis in Pakistan.

• Influenza virus
Influenza (or flu) is a highly contagious infection which attacks the respiratory tract. You or anyone close to you can get the flu. Flu is usually not life impairing or fatal, however, children below 5 years of age or elderly above 65 years may suffer from serious complications and may need to be hospitalized. In older people, influenza is also more likely to lead to pneumonia, bronchitis and other infections. In the worst conditions, influenza can also lead to death.

• Chicken pox
Chickenpox is a common, usually benign childhood disease. Chickenpox is highly contagious and is spread by coughing and sneezing. The disease is characterized by fever and a red, itchy skin rash of that usually starts on the abdomen, back or face and then spreads to nearly all parts of the body. The rash begins as small red bumps that appear as pimples or insect bites. They then develop into thin-walled blisters that are filled with clear fluid which collapse on puncture. The blisters then breaks, crusts over, and leaves dry brown scabs.

• Herpes simplex virus
Herpes is a viral disease that is contagious. The herpes simplex virus causes this infection which is contracted through sexually intercourse or exposure to an infected individual’s body fluid. Once a person has been infected, the virus can lie dormant in the body for years or days before it gets activated. it can also get reactivated multiple times in a year. When herpes simplex virus attacks on human than the some symptoms appeared after attacks including pain feel within 2-10 days after exposure to an infected sexual partner or individual. We may see small red bumps or tiny white blisters which may appear several days later.

• Ebola virus
Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a rare and deadly disease most commonly affecting people. Ebola virus was first discovered in 1976 near the Ebola River in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo. Since then, the virus has been infecting people from time to time, leading to outbreaks in several African countries. Ebola virus spreads to people through direct contact with bodily fluids of a person who is sick with or has died from EVD. This can occur when a person touches the infected body fluids (or objects that are contaminated with them), and the virus gets in through broken skin or mucous membranes in the eyes, nose, or mouth. The virus can also spread to people through direct contact with the blood, body fluids and tissues of infected fruit bats or primates. People can get the virus through sexual contact as well.

Control of human virus
Viruses are very tiny organisms. They are composed of genetic material inside of protein coat. Viruses make serious disease such as common cold, flu and hepatitis B. these are like hijackers. Viruses can kill damage or change the cell makes us sick. Different kinds of viruses attack on particular cell such as liver, respiratory system or blood. For most viral infections, treatments can only help with signs while you wait for your immune system to fight off the virus. Antibiotics do not work for viral infections. There are antiviral medicines to treat some viral disease. Vaccines can help stop you from getting many viral infections.
Viral disease can be controlled by vaccine and by using the antiviral drugs. Frequent hand washing helps prevent transmission of illness. Dry, centrally heated air can promote dehydration, which may leave you more susceptible to illness. Eating out or enjoying a family potluck can be nice, but be on guard. If someone coughs on the food or, in any other way contaminates the food or shared serving utensils, it could then easily be transmitted to you. The diseases can be treated by antiviral drugs or by vaccines, but some viruses, such as HIV, are capable of both avoiding the immune response and mutating to become resistant to antiviral drugs.

CONCLUSION
Viral diseases are the result of virus attack. There are many dangerous viral infections which hit the humans. Some viruses which attack inside the body and some which attack on the body and make skin infection. But viruses can control by use antiviral drugs and vaccines. We should make careness about virus through make our environment clean. The department of our medical should arrange the seminars about virus and its disease. By these seminars people will aware about the loss of viral infections. We should make clean our self and should protected by the germs.
 

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