The Political Legacy of Umar The Great
“If a lamb dies hungry at the bank of river Euphrate, Umar will be responsible for the dereliction of duty.”( Hazrat Umar R.A.)
Seraj Ahmad Misbahi
Research Scholar: Jamia Millia Islamia
New Delhi, 110025
I would like to dedicate this book “The Political Legacy of Umar The Great”to my late grandparents by virtue of whose sincere dua, I became able to do the research on this topic and write something in this regard.
May Allah shower on them with His forgiveness and mercy!
2. Importance of Topic
4. Introduction of Farooq-e-Azam
5. Wives and Children
6. Life During Youth
7. Acceptance of Islam
8. Migration from Makkah To Madinah
9. Title of Al-Farooq
10. Distinctive Nearness To The Prophet
11. Victory of Muslims by the Call of Hazrat Umar
12. Miracle of River Nile
13. Unlawful Customs and Miserable Condition of the Muslims
14. Three Diseases
15. Remedy of the Above Diseases
16. Sudden Appearance of Two Lions
17. He Would Wake up His Households for Salat-ut-Tahajjud.
18. Farooq-e-A’zam’s Fear of Allah
19. Role as Prophet`s Main Counselor
20. Coincidence of Hazrat Umar’s Opinion with the Verses of Holy Quran
21. Heavenly palace of Farooq-e-A’zam According to the Glad-Tiding from the Beloved and Blessed Prophet
22. Excellences of Hazrat Umar
23. Character and Piety
24. Hazrat Umar as a Great Scholar
25. Preaching of Islam
26. Hatred Against Heresy
27. The Event of Hazrat Umar’s Appointment as Caliph
28. The Caliphate of Hazrat Umar.
29. Hazrat Umar's Services to Islam
30. The Political Legacy
31. Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Political and Governmental Actions
32. Achievements of Hazrat Umar
33. Simplicity Among the State Officials
34. Preventing Corruption From Taking Root
35. Principal Events of the Caliphate of Hazrat Umar
36. Introduction of the Islamic Calendar
37. Civil, Military Administration and Policy
38. Some Reflections on the Conquests of Hazrat Umar
39. Joel Carmichael's Objection
40. D. S. Margoliouth's Fabrication
41. Bernard Lewis's Barefaced Falsification
42. William Muir Misquotation
43. Distortive Reply to These Fabrications
44. Second Caliph in Muslim History
45. Even if a Lamb Dies...
46. Hazrat Umar - the Pioneer of Islamic Democracy
47. Umar’s Leadership in New Era of Establishment and Introduction
48. Political Stability
49. Muhammad ibn Maslamah
50. Military Stability
51. Judicial Satbility
52. Chief Justice
54. Social Stability
55. The Severe Famine and Plague
56. Fall of the Persian Empire
57. The Victory of Persia and Rome in Era of Emperor Yazdegerd III
58. Siege of Jerusalem in 637
59. Emperor Heraclius
60. Martyrdom of Umar
61. The Last Days of Umar bin al-Khattab
62. The Body Remained Intact in the Grave
63. Quotations and Teachings of Hazrat Umar
Reasons to Write on This Topic: The Political Legacy of Umar The Great
1 - To raise the awareness of distinguished pioneer scholars of Ahl-e-Sunnat in India toward taking advanced initiatives to participate in politics and judiciary and the executive body of the Indian government to safeguard their shared rights and secure the future of generations to come.
2. After close observing the current conditions in India in term of the proportion of Muslims within the framework of the controlling authorities, law making and commercial business, changes and modifications must be ensured in the curricula of Islamic schools (Madaris) with keeping core syllabus as it is, so that their talents and abilities can be diversified for multipurpose expectations in order to make them stable and established. Because when they get established, the religion they follow will be consequently established.
3 – Through the changes in the main stream of madaris system, it is dire need of the current time to make the parents more responsible.
4 – Reinforcement of the sectional decree of the Hanafi jurisprudence “"من لم يعرف بأحوال زمانه فلا يصلح أن يكون إماما "who did not know the surrounding conditions and situations of his time, (whether it is religious, political, or social) is not fit to be an imam" on this step, multispectral transformation must be ensured among Ulma (Madrsa graduates).
5. In my opinion as it is proved by hundreds of demanding occasions, Muslim empowerment in governing authorities has more importance than the Nafilah Islamic practices that we are addicted with on several occasions.
6. To feed young adolescent generations with motivational aspirations and resolute commitment to reach new horizons, whether in religious approach, political hegemony, medical knowledge, science and technology or commerce and trade. (As we Ulma are supposed to lead the Ummah to multidimensional upward not only religion hence we all consider Islam as a complete code of life not a bunch of some religious obligations.
7 – To address the fabrications and misinterpretations against hazrat Omar (May Allah be pleased with him) by oreintalists through electronic media and several websites and specially a huge storm of allegations by Shiite groups via internet.
8 - The dire quest to find out the hidden truth Why Islam spread in the era of Caliph Omar in all three continents of the world; Asia, Europe and Africa (in his period of caliphate, only three continents were on the global map). Was it only by Dua and karamat as it seems first in our mindset whenever we look back at the Islamic history? Or behind this, was a strategic theme, stable governance system, confrontational stamina, synergetic think power or so called think tank along with the strong belief in oneness of God.
Seraj Ahmad Misbahi
Ph.D. JMI, New Delhi
Importance of Topic
This paper analyzes the key element of this theory in the reign of caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab. It is hypothesized that the teachings of effective governance can be understood from the al-siasah al-shariyyah and shariah framework. The concept of effective governance emerged and became known as a policy formulation with its implementation through synergistic participation by various sectors including administrative, political and economic, focusing on several characteristics – efficient, honest, equitable, transparent and accountable – in order to obtain a higher quality of governance. Thus, it is consistent with the concept of al-siasah al-shar‘iyyah, which is to safeguard and recognize the lawful benefit for the citizen through a pattern of management. This concept was practised by caliph Umar al-Khattab throughout his reign and it is shown that the concept of al siyasah al-shar`iyyah can be developed with a more specific approach so that it will be more relevant and applicable to the current needs and situation.
The notion of “governance”, “good governance”, “effective governance” or as identified by some researchers “humane governance” and “participatory governance” has become increasingly crucial in today’s government debate and practice. Even though the concept of governance is not new.
Conceptually, governance has brought a new dimension to the administration and policy studies and planning for countries globally. Seemingly, it became one of the important strategies, processes, methods and mechanisms in countries and achieving public demand and interest. Nonetheless, the idea of governance is still widely debatable due to the various definitions.
In this respect, the practice of governing under the ruling of caliphate ‘Umar Ibn al-Khattab will also be explored to complete the theoretical framework as well as giving a better picture on how it was exercised.
Introduction of Hazrat ‘Umar Farooq-e-A’zam
Hazrat Umar Ibn-Al-Khattab was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs. He belonged to Banu Adi family tribe of Quraish in Makah. His patronymic name is ‘Abu Hafs’ and his title is ‘Farooq-e-A’zam’. By occupation, he was a businessman. He was about 10 years younger than the Holy Prophet. His forefatthers played a great role in settling disputes among the clans. The Adi family used to lead them as an Arbitrator. His father`s name was Khattab and his grandfather was Nufail, who were both well known for their rational and decision making abilities. His mother, Khantamah was a daughter of Hisham bin al-Mughirah, a highly ranked person among the Quraish.
According to a narration, in the sixth year of the proclamation of Prophethood, he was the 40th person to embrace Islam. He remained engaged in Islamic expeditions against wicked disbelievers being a majestic warrior. He contributed in all Islamic campaigns and in all strategic decisions of and peace headed by the Holy Prophet as a faithful minister and comrade. The first caliph, Ameer-ul-Mu`mineen, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddeeq nominated Sayyiduna Farooq-e-A’zam the caliph after him. He executed all the responsibilities of caliphate marvelously and proved to be the worthy successor of the Beloved Prophet. He is a paragon of excellence and miraculous wonders. In addition to other especial attributes, Allah made him more distinguished than others by conferring upon him several great accomplishments.
Wives and Children
1. Hazrat Zainab accepted Islam but died in Makkah. She was sister of Uthman bin Maz'un. She gave birth to Hazrat Abdullah, Abdur Rahman and Hazrat Hafsah. These were the children she bore to Hazrat Umar.
2. Malkiah bint Jarwal, she did not accept Islam and was divorced in 6 A.H. according to Islamic law. She gave birth to Ubaidullah.
3. Quraibah bint Abi Ummiyah, she also did not accept Islam and was divorced in 6 A.H.
The above three marriages had taken place before Hazrat Umar accepted Islam. After accepting Islam he contracted marriages with the following:
4. Ummi Hakim bint-ul-Harith, she gave birth to a girl named Fatimah.
5. Jamilah bint Asim, she gave birth to a son who was named Asim. She was a Muslim but was divorced for some other reason.
6. Umm Kulthum bint Hazrat Ali. She was married in the year 17 A.H. She gave birth to Ruqayyah and Zaid.
1. Ummul Mumineen Hazrat Hafsah.
2. Ruqayyah - the youngest daughter of Hazrat Umar.
6. Abu Shahmah
Life During Youth
Hazrat Umar was one of the educated people in Quraish family in that period of time when only a few people were literate and could read & write. He also got familiar with the art and science of genetics and knew the history of the Arabia. He was very brave; Umar was a well-known famous wrestler, debater, and a spirited person in his youth time. He was also famous for his flawless horse-riding skills. He was an intelligent person and a renowned public speaker and successful ambassador of Quraish.
He also had to bear the hardships by facing wrath of his father whenever he tumbled in carrying out the assigned duties. He also got familiar with the art and science of genealogy and knew the history of the Arabs. At youth, he was a physically strong person with tall stature. He could travel long distances on his feet without any problem. He was also considered among the top wrestlers due to his great athletic abilities and he also won most of the fights held at the annual fairs of Ukaz. He was also famous for his immaculate horse-riding skills. He was smart person, a well known public orator and successfully handled the ambassadorial role on part of Quraish.
Hazrat Umar's acceptance of Islam
Although Umar had flawless intellectual and physical talents, unfortunately, he had not accepted the Messenger of Allah and Holy Prophet Muhammad. He was one of the fanatic enemies of Prophet Muhammad.
His acceptance of Islam is a wonderful episode. It was the sixth year of the Holy Prophet's mission when the leaders of Quraish called a meeting and asked for volunteers for the assassination of the Holy Prophet. Hazrat Umar offered himself for this job and everybody in the meeting exclaimed that he was the right person for it.
While he was on his way, with a sword in his hand, he met Hazrat Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas who enquired of him about where he was going. Hazrat Umar told him that he was going to murder Rasulallah. After some discussion Hazrat Sa'd said, "You had better take care of your own family first. Your sister and brother-in-law both have accepted Islam".
Hearing this, Now, Umar’s rage was beyond bounds. He changed his direction and went straight to his sister's house. When Hazrat Umar knocked at the door, they were being taught the Holy Qur'an by Hazrat Khabbab. His sister Fatima was frightened on hearing Hazrat Umar’s voice and tried to hide the portion of the Holy Qur'an she was reciting. When Hazrat Umar entered the house he enquired about their Islam and on finding that they had accepted Islam, he first fell upon his brother-in-law and beat him severely. When his sister intervened, he smote her so violently on her face that it bled profusely. On this his sister burst out: "Do whatever you like, we are determined to die as Muslims".
When Hazrat Umar saw his sister bleeding, he cooled down and felt ashamed. He loved Fatima very much but could not tolerate her conversion to Islam. However, deeply moved, Hazrat Umar asked her to show the pages on which the Holy Qur'an was written. But she was, after all, Hazrat Umar’s sister, so told him straight, "You can not touch it unless you take a bath and make yourself clean".
He then took a bath and read the scripts. It was the beginning of Surah Ta Ha (Chapter 20 of the Holy Qur'an). Finally he came to the verse:
"Lo! I even I, am Allah, there is no god save Me. So serve Me and establish Salat for My remembrance."(Holy Quran – 20:14)
This aayat penetrated his heart and his whole being was transformed. At this, Hazrat Umar exclaimed, "Surely this is the Word of Allah. Take me to Prophet Muhammad ".
On hearing this Hazrat Khabbab, who had hidden himself in the house, came out from inside and said, "O Umar! Glad tidings for you. It seems that the prayer of the Rasulallah (s.a.w) which he said last night has been answered in your favour. He prayed to Allah: "O Allah, strengthen Islam with Umar, whomsoever Thou pleaseth".
Hazrat Umar then went to the Holy Prophet. On seeing him, the Holy Prophet asked him, "Umar! what brings you here”? He said, "I am here to accept Islam".
Hearing this the Muslims shouted with joy, "Allahu Akbar! (Allah is the Greatest)" and the sound echoed though the air of Makkah. He was 39 Years old when he accepted Islam. As a matter of fact, Umar’s conversion to Islam was a terrible blow to the morale of the disbelievres.
The Apostle of God has been narrated by Abdullah (R.A): “We have become mighty since ‘Umar became Muslim.”(Bukhari). Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas'ud, a great Companion, says, "Hazrat Umar's conversion to Islam was a great triumph, his emigration to Madinah a tremendous reinforcement and his accession to Caliphate a great blessing for the Muslims".
Migration From Makkah To Madina
In 622 A.D, Allah ordered the Muslims to emigrate from Makkah immediately so that they could be saved from oppressions of the Makkan disbelievers. It was the time of great fear and dread as Muslims thought that they would be killed if non believers had come to know about their leaving. Everyone was migrating towards Madina quietly apart from the brave Umar (R.A), who after perfoorming Namaz in Kaaba, openly declared his endeavor in front of all and invited them to stop him if they could dare to do so. The Holy Prophet is reported to have said regarding the incomparable confidence of Hazrat Umar (R.A) in the following words:
“I see that devil either from humans or jinn, runs away from Umar.” (Tirimzi)
His migration is an interesting anecdote which gives a good picture of his courage and bravery. Hazrat Ali said that in the beginning people migrated by stealth. When Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) migrated, he strung his sword around his neck and held his bow in his hand. He took along a big supply of arrows. Firstly, he went to the Musjid and calmly performed the tawaaf, then the Salaat. He then confronted the gathering of kuffaar and addressed them as follows:
“Whoever desires that his mother wails for him, that his children be rendered orphans and his wife a widow, should come out of Makkah to combat Umar.” He then departed. No one dared to oppose him.
Title of Al-Farooq
The conversion of Hazrat Umar strengthened Islam. Before this, Muslims had lived in constant fear of the disbelievers, and most of them were concealing their faith. Muslims were not able to offer Salah publicly due to fear of chiefs of Quraish. But when Hazrat Umar accepted Islam and came in the circle of Islam. He declared his faith openly before the Quraish chiefs. Believers came openly as they knew no one has dare to face Hazrat Umar. When all the Muslims gathered in the Kabah, they offered their Salat in congregation. It was the first public Salat in the history of Islam. He was the one who first suggested the Holy Prophet that they should perform Salah in the Holy Kaaba, where the Messenger of Allah for the first time led the Muslim prayer. Due to such fearless proposal and for this courageous and bold action of Hazrat Umar, he was given the title of Al-Farooq by the Holy Prophet, which means “the one who distinguishes between the right and the wrong”.
Distinctive Nearness To The Prophet
Hazrat Siddeeq-e-Akbar and Hazrat Farooq-e-A’zam both were bestowed with especial and distinctive nearness to the Holy Prophet in their worldly life as well as after the demise.
A man of wonders After Sayyiduna Siddeeq-e-Akbar, Sayyiduna Umar Bin Al Khattab is the most eminent of all companions of the Holy Prophet.
The more a person possesses the divine nearness, the higher will be his rank of his sainthood. The companions were bestowed with exclusive attributes by virtue of the Holy Prophet’s company. This is why the nearness and proximity possessed by these holy men in the court of Allah can’t be availed by other Awliya Kiraam.
Victory of Muslims by the Call of Caliph Umar
Ameer-ul Mu`mineen Umar Farooq-e-A’zam sent Hazrat Saariyah towards the land of ‘Nahawand’ for Jihad, designating him as the commander-in-chief. When Hazrat Saariyah was at war against the disbelievers, Hazrat ‘Umar suddenly ordered whilst delivering the sermon standing at the blessed pulpit of Masjid-un-Nabawi, O Saariyah! Turn your back towards the mountain. The people present in the Masjid were amazed, for Hazrat Saariyah was sent in Jihad hundreds of miles away at the land of Nahawand; then what made Ameer-ul-Mu`mineen call him out today?
The confusion dispelled when a war-participant envoy of Hazrat Saariyah came and reported that while confronting on the battlefield, when the signs of defeat were obvious to us, we heard a voice, ‘O Saariyah! Turn your back towards the mountain.’ Hazrat Saariyah said, ‘Oh! This is the voice of Ameer-ul-Mu`mineen, Hazrat ‘Umar Farooq-e-A’zam.
Then he (Hazrat Saariyah) immediately ordered the army to be rearranged by turning their back towards the mountain. Thereafter, we attacked the disbelievers fiercely; as a result, it turned the tide of battle at once and after a while the Islamic army defeated the army of wicked disbeliever so badly that the disbelievers, in the face of dominating strikes of Islamic army, had no option but to flee the battlefield in. The Islamic army hoisted the victory flag.
Miracle of River Nile
When Egypt was conquered, one day the people of Egypt requested Sayyiduna ‘Amr Bin ‘Aas : O our chief! There is a custom regarding our River Nile that it does not flow until we perform it. He asked, ‘What is that?’ They replied, ‘We take a virgin girl from her parents, adorn her with an elegant dress and beautiful jewellery and then throw her into the River Nile.’ Sayyiduna ‘Amr Bin ‘Aas said, ‘It can’t be possible at all where Islamic teachings prevail and Islam abolishes such bad customs and practice.’
Thus that practice was abandoned. The flow of the river became slower and slower and ultimately the people intended to migrate from that place. Noticing this, Sayyiduna ‘Amr Bin ‘Aas wrote down the entire situation to the second caliph, Ameer-ul-Mu`mineen, Hazrat ‘Umar Bin Khattab. In its reply, the caliph wrote, ‘You did right. Surely, Islam eradicates these types of practices. There is a piece of paper enclosed with this letter, put it into the River Nile.’ When the letter reached Sayyiduna ‘Amr Bin ‘Aas he took out that piece of paper written for the River Nile: ‘O River Nile! Do not flow if you flow of your own accord and if Allah makes you flow, I supplicate to Almighty Allah to make you flow. Hazrat ‘Amr Bin ‘Aas put that piece of paper into the River Nile. Within a night the water level rose by 16 yards and that custom was completely abolished in Egypt.
Unlawful Customs and Miserable Condition of the Muslims
Dear Islamic brothers! Like the bad custom that was prevalent in Egypt to keep the Nile flowing, several obnoxious and prohibited customs have strong roots that have gone deep into the moral ethos of our Muslim societies and these un-Islamic practices are plunging the Muslims into the deep abyss of destruction diverting the Muslims away from the path of the Sunnah of the Beloved Prophet.
Regarding bad customs and the miserable condition of the Muslims is as follows: There cannot be a single sensible soul today that is not grieved due to the present miserable condition of the Muslims and their prevalent economical and educational backwardness. The reign was lost by them, they became deprived of wealth, their honor and dignity came to an end. They are suffering from all types of maladies these times. Observing these conditions, anxiety reaches at its peak; but Only crying will not help, rather it is necessary to ponder over the remedy. We must think of a few things for the sake of remedy.
If you ponder over these four points, you would understand that the cure is easy. Several leaders and rulers of our country and this nation take up the task of reforming the Muslim nation but what they did in vain. The irony is that whenever any virtuous bondman of Allah suggested the correct solution, he was treated in ridiculous and insulting way. In short, the nation did not pay heed to sincere reformers.
Due to merely one reason, the Muslims lost their kingdom, honor, wealth and dignity, because we have abandoned to follow the path of Deen and education.
The actual disease of the Muslims is non-compliance to the commandments of Allah and Sunnat-e-Mustafa. Now this disease has brought many other diseases. Amongst the large number of Muslims, there are three big diseases: The first one is the fabrication of new beliefs and the blind inclination of the Muslims towards such beliefs. The second one is the mutual conflicts, enmities and prosecutions among Muslims. Thirdly, un-Islamic and useless customs invented by the ignorant people. These three diseases have destroyed the Muslims, deprived them of their homes, made them debtors and in short, plunged them into the deep pit of misery.
Remedy of the above diseases
The cure for the first disease is to refrain from the company of those having corrupt-beliefs. Adopt the company of that Sunni scholar by virtue of which your devotion towards the Beloved and Blessed Prophet may increase and the spirit for compliance of the Shari’ah (Islamic law) may develop.
The cure for the second disease: Usually there are two causes of all discords; first is wrath and arrogance and the second is heedlessness from the Islamic laws. Every person desires to remain superior to all and expects from all to respect his rights but he himself does not care for the rights of others. If this pride and arrogance is eliminated from our nature, the humbleness and humility will develop; if every one of us takes care of the rights of others; then there will never be any likelihood of discords.
The third disease in the Muslim society is the cancer of heinous customs and rituals that are practiced at different occasions from birth of a child until the day of his death, have weakened the Muslims from inside. These suffering and agonies of my nation have struck my heart. These few drops of ink (used in this writing) are in fact the drops of my tears. May Allah reform this nation by virtue of these words!
Sudden Appearance of Two Lions
A person was looking for Sayyiduna ‘Umar Farooq-e-A’zam. Someone told him that he might be sleeping far from the town. That person came out of the town and reached the suburb to look for him and finally he found Sayyiduna ‘Umar Farooq-e-A’zam who was sleeping on the ground resting his head on his whip. The person drew his sword out of its sheath to attack Sayyiduna ‘Umar but all of a sudden two lions appeared from the unseen and rushed towards the person. Seeing this horrible scene, he screamed out in terror. Sayyiduna ‘Umar Farooq-e-A’zam awakened by his screaming. The person narrated the whole story and embraced Islam at the hands of Sayyiduna ‘Umar Farooq-e-A’zam.
He Would Wake up His Households for Salat-ut-Tahajjud.
It is narrated by Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Umar that his father Sayyiduna ‘Umar Farooq-e-A’zam used to wake up to offer Salah in the night and at the end of the night, he would awaken his households for Salah. Then he would recite this verse: “And command your household to establish prayer, and yourself be steadfast in it; We do not ask any sustenance from you; We will provide you sustenance; and the excellent result is for piety.”
Once Sayyiduna ‘Umar Farooq-e-A’zam did not find Sayyiduna Sulayman Bin Abi Hasmah in Fajr Salah. Sayyiduna ‘Umar headed toward the market. The home of Sayyiduna Sulayman was on the way. He said that Sulayman was not present during Salat-ul-Fajr. His mother Sayyidatuna Shifa said, ‘He kept offering Nafl Salah all the night and then he fell asleep.’ Sayyiduna ‘Umar said, ‘To me, offering Salat-ul-Fajr in congregation values more than offering Nafl Salah all the night.
Farooq-e-A’zam’s Fear of Allah
Despite being destined to Jannah, Sayyiduna ‘Umar Farooq-e-A’zam would weep bitterly out of the fear of Allah due to which two dark lines had developed on his refulgent face.
Sayyiduna ‘Umar Bin Khattab would sometimes bring his hands near the fire and question himself, ‘O son of Khattab! Do you have courage to bear this fire?
His constant and abundant crying formed two dark stripes down his cheeks. He would cry so much in Salaat for the fear of Allah, that his sobbing could be heard by three rows of musallis. At times while engaged in tilaawat of the Qur’aan Shareef he would cry so profusely that his breathing would become difficult. Sometimes he would fall down. Sometimes he would lament,
Sometimes he would hold in hand grass and say: “I wish I was this grass.”
Role as The Holy Prophet`s Main Counselor
Almighty Allah made Hazrat Umar the closest friend of Rasulullah who stood by Him throughout his life. He proved to be a great counselor in many complex matters, and the Holy Prophet agreed to his ideas on many times. His prudence was due to his exceptional qualities of problem solving abilities and knowledge about the history of the Arabs.
“If the knowledge of ‘Umar was put on one side of a scale, and the knowledge of the people on the other side of the scale, ‘Umar’s knowledge would weigh more.” (Al-Mustadrak)
Regarding the great rank of Hazrat Umar (R.A) in Islam, the Messenger of Allah has been reported by Uqbah bin Amir to have said: “If there were to be a prophet after me, indeed he would be Umar, son of Khattab.” (Tirmidhi)
Coincidence of Hazrat Umar’s Opinion with the Verses of Holy Quran
Umar’s Islamic education was earned at the hands of the Holy Prophet. He was amongst the Prophet’s closest companions and would often enquire and learn about Islam in his presence, later transmitting the knowledge he gained to others. In particular, Hazrat Umar would often ask the Prophet about his opinions with regards to certain Qur’anic verses. Moreover, Hazrat Umar frequently offered his own personal reasoning (ijtihād). In fact, there are several instances where the Qur’an contains a verse revealed in confirmation of Umar’s(RA) opinions. Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī reports a tradition from Umar, in which he said that:My opinion coincided with that of my Lord (Allah) in three matters. I said ‘O Messenger of Allah, why don’t you take maqām Ibrāhīm[the station of Ibrahim, located near the Ka’ba in Makkah] as a place for prayer? Then Allah revealed that. And I said ‘O Messenger of Allah, both righteous and immoral people visit you, why don’t you tell the Mothers of the believers to observe ḥijāb? And, Allah revealed the verse of ḥijāb. And I heard that the Messenger of Allah had rebuked some of his wives, so I went to them and said ‘either you stop, or Allah will give His Messenger wives better than you… then Allah revealed the verse of sūrah al-Tahrīm(66:5)
In addition to these examples, when the Prophet Muhammad was asked to offer the funeral prayer for Abdullāh ibn Ubay, one of the munāfiqūn (hypocrites), Umar went to him to try and stop him from doing so. The Prophet, however, simply smiled and chose to proceed with the funeral. Later, the Quranic verse in Sūrah al-Taubah(9:84) was revealed, prohibiting the Prophet from joining the funeral prayer of any of the hypocrites, or of standing by their graves to pray for them.
Heavenly palace of Farooq-e-A’zam According to the glad-tiding from the Beloved and Blessed Prophet
Hazrat Farooq-e-A’zam is amongst ‘Asharah Mubashsharah’ (the ten blessed companions who were given the certain promise of Jannah). Therefore, Hazrat Jabir Bin ‘Abdullah reported that the Noblest Prophet said: I entered into Jannah. There I saw a palace. I inquired, ‘Whose palace is this?’ Angel replied, ‘Hazrat Umar.’ I wished to enter it to have a view of it but O Umar! I thought of your self-respect and gave up the attempt. Listening to it, Sayyiduna Umar said, ‘O Prophet of Allah! My parents be sacrificed for you, how dare I think of my self-respect being offended by you?
Excellences of Hazrat Umar
1- The sun did not rise on any man better than Umar.
2- All the angels of sky respect Sayyiduna Umar
and every Satan (devil) on the earth trembles with his fear.
3- A true believer has devotion towards Sayyiduna Abu Bakr and Umar and a hypocrite bears malice towards them.
4- Sayyiduna Umar is the lamp of the dwellers of Jannah.
Sayyiduna Umar is the person who never likes falsehood.
6- A heavenly person will come to you, then Sayyiduna Umar
7- The pleasure of Allah is the pleasure of Sayyiduna Umar
and the pleasure of Sayyiduna Umar is the pleasure of Allah.
8- Allah placed the truth upon the tongue and heart of Umar.
It is mentioned in a Hadees of the book Sahih Bukhari that Hazrat Anas Bin Maalik said that one of the blessed companions asked the Noblest Prophet, “When would the Day of Resurrection take place?’ The Noblest Prophet replied, ‘What preparation have you made for it? The blessed companion replied, ‘O Prophet of Allah! I have no deed except for that I love Allah and His Prophet. The Noblest Prophet
said, “You will be with the one whom you love. Hazrat Anas said, ‘No glad tiding made us so jubilant as this saying did: You will be with the one whom you love. Then Hazrat Anas said, ‘I love the Beloved Rasool and also Hazrat Abu Bakr and Umar. Therefore, I hope that I will be with them though my deeds are not like theirs.
His excellences are unanimous. There are numerous issues on which there is unanimity among Muslims. But, there are very few such issues on which there is the consensus of both Muslims and Kuffaar. However, through Hazrat Umar there are many examples on which there exists such consensus. Even enemies concede his wisdom, intelligence, alertness, political foresight, political administration, awe and justice. Besides his immense awe, there are numerous incidents of his zuhd (abstinence) and poverty. I shall cite a few examples, since it is impossible to enumerate all such episodes.
Everyone who has performed Hajj in summer is aware of the extreme heat. But never was a tent or shade erected for Hazrat Umar on any stage of his journey from Madinah Tayyibah to Makkah Mukarramah. A piece of leather would be spread in the shade of a cactus tree. He would rest thereon.
Once during a severe famine which endured for 9 months he abandoned eating of butter and meat in sympathy and solidarity with the fuqara (poor). He took an oath that he would not eat bread with anything besides olive oil. During this famine he made dua: “O Allah! Do not destroy the Ummah by my hands.” He would visit people in their homes to ascertain their needs. He would stress that they refer their requirements to him.
In the beginning there was considerable harshness in him. Precisely for this reason did people avoid coming out of their homes in the initial period of Hadhrat Umar’s khilaafat. Observing this, he delivered a lengthy khutbah in which he said:
“People! I was hard until there were among you kind and beneficent men such as the Holy Prophet and Hazrat Abu Bakr. The combination of my hardness and their softness has brought about moderation. But, now I shall not be harsh on you. My hardness will be for only the oppressors. O People! If I oppose the Sunnat of Rasulullah, what will you do?”
After he posed this question several times, a man stood up brandishing a sword and indicated with it that he would sever his (Umar’s) neck. This audacity did not anger him in the least. On the contrary, this answer pleased him.
Inspite of him having been given the glad tidings of Jannat, the degree of his fear was overwhelming. And, despite his piety and so much fear for Allah he would ask Hazrat Huzaifah , whether Rasulullah had not perhaps mentioned his name too in the list of the Munaafiqeen whose names Rasulullah had revealed to Hadhrat Huzaifah.
Character and Piety
He was extremely pious and God-fearing. His success lay in two things: fear of Allah and his love for Rasulallah (s.a.w). He never used even oil from the Baitul Mal (Public Treasury) to burn a lamp at night for his personal needs. Whenever he finished the official work he put off the lamp. He used to patrol in the city at night to find out the needs and requirements, and conditions of the people.
The human mind is unable to assess the exceptionally high degree of Hadhrat Umar’s humility. Inspite of being the Emperor of emperors and the king of Arab and Ajam, he was unparalleled in his attribute of tawaadhu’ (humility).
When he mounted the mimbar to deliver the khutbah, he sat on the step on which Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) would stand. When it was said to him to sit higher on the mimbar, he replied:
It suffices for me to sit on that place where on stood the feet of Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu).”
He did not hesitate to take his wife to work as a midwife for a poor woman. The salary he got from the Baitul Mal was so low that it was hardly enough for him and his family's needs. When some of the eminent Muslims requested him to increase the amount he said, "Rasulallah (s.a.w) has left a standard by his personal example. I must follow him".
Hazrat Umar was one of the most just rulers in Islamic History. All the citizens, including the Khalifa himself, were equal before law. Once he appeared before a court in Madinah to clarify his position against a complaint. The Qadi (judge) wanted to stand in his honour, but he did not allow him to do so, so that there would be no distinction between him and an ordinary person before Law. He was really the founder of the modern democratic system. In short, he was a perfect example of an ideal character, and was the greatest Khalifah of Islam after Hazrat Abu Bakr. He selflessly devoted his whole energy for the cause of Islam and the Muslim world will always be indebted to him for his great achievements.
When he journied to the land of Shaam, he was clad in worn-out garments which had a number of patches. It was said to him that high-ranking priests of the Yahood and Nasaara would be visiting him. What will they think of the Muslims’ leader clad so shabbily? Hazrat Umar responded:
“We are a people whom Allah elevated by means of Islam.” In other words, our honour and respect are not by means of garments.
One day approximately 50 Muhaajir Sahaabah gathered in the Musjid. They were discussing Hadhrat Umar’s zuhd (abstinence, worldly renunciation, abstention form worldly comforts and pleasures for Allah’s sake. It was said: Look at Umar in whose control is the empire of Kaisar and Kisraa! His orders operate in the east and west. The delegations of Arab and Ajam visit him. They all see him with a kurtah of a dozen patches. He should be advised to change his dress. He should wear better garments. Garments do create an impression. He should make better arrangements for his food. There should be some elaborate daily arrangement for both meals. The Muhaajireen and Ansaar coming to meet him, should join him in meals.”
Although it was resolved to offer this advice to Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu), no one could muster up the courage to tell him. Finally they decided to ask Hadhrat Ali who being Hadhrat Umar’s father-in-law would be able to advise him. When they approached Hadhrat Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) he declined and suggested that they approach Ummahaatul Mu’mineen (The Mothers of the Mu’mineen, viz. Rasulullah’s wives).
Ahnaf Bin Qais (radhiyallahu anhu) says that they then went to Hadhrat Aishah and Hadhrat Hafsah. Both were at the same place. Hadhrat Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) agreed to tell Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu). But Hadhrat Hafsah (radhiyallahu anha) said that she would not go. But in view of the insistence of this group of Sahaabah both finally went to Hadhrat Umar. They presented an eloquent introductory speech in this matter. He patiently listened to their advice and broke down crying profusely.
He recounted the austerity of Rasulullah and both wives cried as well. He then commented: Listen! I had two companions. If I should adopt a way which differs from their way which I had observed, I will not be blessed with their companionship (in the Aakhirah).” This condition of Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) endured to the end. Not the slightest change was admitted in his life-style.
7) Once while Hadhrat Abu Mosa Ash’aari (radhiyallahu anhu) was sweeping the premises of the Baitul Maal, he found a dirham (silver coin). He gave it to one of Hadhrat Umar’s grandsons who was a little child. When Hadhrat Umar saw the dirham in the child’s hand he enquired about it. When the child informed him that it was given to him by Hadhrat Abu Mosa, Hadhrat Umar became very displeased. He took the dirham from the child and reprimanded Hadhrat Abu Mosa as follows:
“O Abu Mosa! Could you not find a home more contemptible than my home?”
When Umar became a Caliph, Islam spread widely later, because of its simplicity, beauty, openness, transparency and of course the leadership provided by him. During his time, non-Muslims enjoyed freedom and religion; they had the right to reform their religious ceremonies. Besides, Umar followed the principle of equality very strictly and would not tolerate any kind of distinction. Furthermore he always fought to favor individual freedom and self-respect, he made it very clear that every human being was born free and no one should have to abuse himself in front of others. In addition Umar had actually cared a lot for poor and privileged people, He to be close to them lived in a simple mud hut without doors and walked the streets every evening, after consulting with the poor. In the other hand Umar's achievements and contributions were all remarkable and numerous, they affected especially taxation, the empire's entire financial and administrative fabric, and Social welfare as well, Umar established the 1st welfare state and it was for the Muslim and non-Muslim poor, needy ,elderly, orphans and the disabled.
Hazrat Umar as a Great Scholar
Before the advent of Islam there was no tradition in Arabia of reading or writing. There were only seventeen people amongst the Quraish who could read or write at the time when Rasulallah (s.a.w) started to receive Divine revelations. Hazrat Umar was one of those seventeen persons. His writing and lectures are still found in some old books. The first address he gave as a Caliph was:
"O Allah, I am strict, make me soft. I am weak, give me power. The Arabs are like refractory camels, I will endeavour to bring them to the straight path."
He was also interested in poetry and sometimes he composed verses. Hazrat Umar (R.A) was one of the most fluent of the Quraish in language. Arabic-knowing persons can appreciate the fluency of his writings and addresses. Many of his sayings became aphorisms of literature. He was a great Jurist and Theologian of Islam. Because of the fear of making any mistake, he did not quote many Ahadith even though he was fully conversant with them. He never allowed a person to quote any Hadith which was not well known without producing any attestator in support of it. If somebody quoted a Hadith before him which he had never heard, he at once asked him to bring a witness; failing which he would be punished. He was expert in deriving laws from the Holy Qur'an and the Hadith. A full volume could be complied out of the verdicts and judgements given by Hazrat Umar. As a matter of fact he opened a new door of Ijtihad (disciplined judgement of a jurist) in the history of Islamic Law and Jurisprudence, and settled a number of disputable cases during his Khilafat.
Preaching of Islam
As the viceroy of Rasulallah (s.a.w), his foremost duty was to spread and preach Islam. As mentioned above, the aim of various battles was to clear the way for the Muslims for preaching Islam.
The method adopted to preach Islam was demonstration by actual practice. For this purpose he ordered Muslims to establish their own quarters and present the practical shape of Islam before the population. Seeing the truthful way, the inhabitants of the place were attracted towards Islam. No soldier was allowed to take any property or anything by force from the conquered people.
Because of fair treatment by the Muslims, sometimes the whole army of the enemy accepted Islam. After the battle of Qadisiya, a battalion of four thousand Persians accepted Islam. After the victory of Jalula, the chiefs of the place entered the folds of Islam along with the inhabitants. A commander of the army of Yadzgird, named Siyah accepted Islam with his battalion during a battle in Persia. All the inhabitants of the town of Bulhat in Egypt accepted Islam at one time without the use of any force only by seeing the piety of the Muslims. A rich merchant and the chief of a place in Egypt, named Shata, accepted Islam with all the inhabitants of the place only after hearing about the character and piety of Muslims at the time when Muslims had not even reached that place.
These are a few examples to show how Islam spread because of the character of Muslims at that time.
Hazrat Umar was very strict in ensuring that no Muslims forced any non-Muslim to accept Islam. Through his advice, letters and addresses, he made it clear to all the Muslims that they had to adhere to the ways of Rasulallah (s.a.w), which was the only method to preach Islam.
Hatred Against Heresy
it is mentioned: Hazrat Umar Farooq-e-A’zam had just come after offering Salat-ul-Maghrib from the Masjid when a man said [raising his voice] Who will give food to the traveller? Hazrat Umar Farooq-e-A’zam asked his servant, ‘Bring him (to my home).’ The food was arranged for him when he came. No sooner had the traveller started to eat the food than he uttered such a word [while talking] that was giving a sense of heresy; at once he took the food away and expelled him.
The Event of Hazrat Umar’s Appointment as Caliph
After the demise of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu), the new khalifah Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) assumed the reigns of the khilaafat by the appointment of his predecessor. The reigns of both the worldly and spiritual leadership came into his hands. His appointment as the khalifah is indeed an interesting episode. When Hadhrat Abu Bakr’s illness took a turn for the worse and his demise seemed imminent, he summoned Hadhrat Ali, Hadhrat Uthman, some Muhaajireen and Ansaar. He addressed them thus: “You are observing my deteriorating condition. It has therefore become necessary to appoint someone to take care of your affairs after me. If you wish, you may by mutual consultation nominate a man or if you wish, I shall select a man.” They requested him to appoint a successor. Hadhrat Abu Bakr then instructed Hadhrat Uthman to prepare a document in which Hadhrat Umar was appointed the Khalifah. Hadhrat Umar said: “I cannot bear this responsibility.” Hadhrat Abu Bakr: ‘Bring my sword. He has disobeyed the order of Rasulullah’s Khalifah.’
“This directive is being written by Abu Bakr, the Khalifah of Rasulullah at the juncture of his departure from earth and the commencement of his journey to the Aakhirah. I appoint after me for you Umar Bin Khattaab as the Khalifah. If he remains pious and just, then this is exactly what I am convinced of (in regard to him). If he changes, then I (have to say that I) lack the knowledge of the unknown. In my opinion I have done the best for you (by this appointment). The burden of a sin is on the one committing it. (He then cited the following aayat). “And soon will the transgressors know the direction towards which they are turning.”
The four Pious Caliphs, with special emphasis on the reign of Caliph Umar.
Indeed, Luther Gulick and James Pollock, both prominent scholars in contemporary public administration, concluded in the 1962 report on `The Organisation of Governmental Administration of the United Arab Republic (Egypt), that Islamic culture during the era of caliph Umar is one of the best bases for a strong and successful government and efficient democracy in modern times.
Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab proved successful in his ten year leadership.
His governance is categorized by innovation, reform and high accountability (Al-Buraey, 1985). To illustrate, many Islamic writings wrote that during his leadership, Umar once said he was afraid that a mule might fall off the mountainous roads in Iraq and break its legs, and that God might ask him why he had not paved the roads in the area. His concern for public interest and safety can be clearly understood from the citation below. (Al-Buraey, 1985)
“I have appointed over you governors and agents not to beat your bodies or take your monies, but rather to teach you and serve you’. `Listen, verily I am not sending you as rulers and potentates; rather, I am sending you as the leaders of guidance so that men may follow you; beat them not, lest you humiliate them; praise them not; lest you make them undisciplined. Do not shut your doors against them, lest the strong among them devour the weak ones.”
In upholding the principle of al-amanah (responsibility and accountability) the caliph said: `What I do right, assist me; Where I do wrong correct me’. (Ibn al-Jawzi, 1987).
In governing effectively based on public interest, his rulership underlined several conditions in the selection and appointment of civil servants. First, they must possess good characteristics including being a pious, capable and trustworthy person. Second, the one selected will be appointed temporarily for two or three months to undergo a testing period before joining the government permanently. A testing period is to evaluate the person’s behaviour and competency and before appointment is made, caliph `Umar usually consulted his advisory council. This institution and practice is known as al-Shura. Third, the promoted state officials will be paid a high salary. This high salary policy was initiated to pay for their honesty and ensure that there was no reason for them to take bribery. (Shibli Nu’mani, 1957).
These merit-based recruitment and promotion, career growth policies and incentives are crucial to retain the better performers within the civil service. Indeed this was one of the mechanisms to curb malpractice and corruption, which undermined the practice of effective governance. Civil servants need to be adequately paid if they are to maintain the probity, professionalism and integrity that should be required of the public service.
Caliph ‘Umar often checked on Muslim affairs and obtained information about them through survey. He entered the markets and strived to solve any conflicts that occurred during his time. He even aspired to explore all the Islamic territories to obtain a view of his people through his own eyes. He also stated that: “If I’m being able to live for a long time, I will go and explore all the Islamic territories by myself to view on my people. I know that they have various needs that cannot be fulfilled without my presence. I hope that my effort can be regarded as a good effort by Allah”. (Ibn al-Jawzi, 1987).
Al-Tabari narrated that Sayyidina ‘Umar Ibn al-Khattab gave a speech to the public on one day and said (Ibn al-Jawzi, 1987): “O my comrades, in the name of Allah, I did not send a representative or a governor to hurt you all. Not also to confiscate your property. But they are sent to you to teach you about Islam and Sunnah. Those who do things beside this, please forward the complaints to me. In the name of Allah, I will take serious action to those who deviate from that. Suddenly stand up ‘Amr al-‘As and say ‘O Amirul Mukminin, are you going to take an action to those who carried out nation’s affairs and give out services to the citizen? ‘Yes’ said Sayyidina ‘Umar, “Why not?” Whereas I witnessed Rasulullah also doing so by myself. Then Sayyidina ‘Umar said to ‘Amr al-‘As “What fears the citizen most are a cruel leader and a brutal king.”
To meet the necessity of the public and for governing well, caliph Umar also introduced the following reformation.
(Ibn al-Jawzi, 1987)
1. Institution of hisbah: This is an institution to maintain law and order in the marketplace. It is headed by an officer known as muhtasib.
2. A special office for investigating complaints that reaches caliph. A very reliable and trustworthy person is appointed for the post.
3. A bait al-mal or Treasury House. Under caliph ‘Umar’s leadership, he also changed the administrative pattern effectively and efficiently. He separated the judicial and executive duties in order to specialize the management of both effectively. Special judges (qadi) were appointed to perform the function of the judiciary who were distinct and separate from the role of the governor of the province and territories and qadi’s were placed under the supervision of the caliph. (Ibn al-Jawzi, 1987).
Separation of power can give the benefit of judicial management and enable the administration of the court to run efficiently. The ideological system suggested by ‘Umar was among the best with the separation of power encouraging both leaders and the people to use power and authority in the right place.
Further, strategic planning in economic systems was also introduced, providing the most benefit to the people, state and in due respect to his responsibility and accountability to Allah. Caliph ‘Umar inspired the best economic systems, where economic equality was set as the goal to be achieved as well as the principle to be established successfully, emphasizing equity and equality, which are based upon the Quranic principles. He introduced a variety of revenue systems for countries, which formed the foundation of the land tenure system. The different systems of land tenure that were prevalent in the Muslim Empire during the caliphate of ‘Umar Ibn al-Khattab were Iqta or Individual ownership system. The grant of iqta’s conferred proprietary rights on the beneficiaries such that an iqta became iqta tamlik, where the owners were, free to use the land in any way they liked.
Caliph ‘Umar also introduced land reform following the conquest of agricultural countries like Iraq, Iran and Egypt. ‘Umar took a bold step in which he abolished absentee-landlordism and changed the whole pattern of land ownership in the Islamic Empire. A hadith of the Holy Prophet reported by Aishah reads (Al-Nasa'i, 1991):
من أحيـا ارضـا ليسـت لاحـد وھـو احـق بھـا “One who cultivated the untilled land which did not belong to anyone has prior right to it”. Caliph ‘Umar recognized the importance of agriculture in a flourishing economy and took many steps for its improvement.
Irrigation canals were laid out in the conquered lands, and a large department was organized for constructing dams, excavating tanks, and for the building of canals and sluices for the distribution of water (Ibn al-Jawzi, 1987).
Ali Ibn ’Abi Talib, ‘Uthman Ibn al-‘Affan, Talhah, ‘Ubaydillah, al-Zubayr ‘Awwam, Sa‘ad ’Abi Waqqas, and ‘Abdul Rahman Ibn ‘Auf. They were the meeting members, especially when it came to decide upon important matters were in advisory council. Caliph ‘Umar gave a message to them, saying “ I find out that all of you are the leaders of your community and all matters that need to be decided stop upon all of you” (Ibn al-Jawzi, 1987). This principle and practice also stipulates `rida al awam’, which is popular consent; `ijtihad jama`i’; which is collective deliberation and `mas`uliyah jama’iyyah’, which is collective responsibility, as a prerequisite to the establishment of Islamic effective governance.
He is well known as a father of reformation. The process in which governance is taking place can also be learnt from the practice of al-shura where multiple entities are involved in decisionmaking. As a result, the people gained economic, social and political benefits and prosperity with the faith to God. Umar focused on the well being of the people (maslahah ammah), in particular, those poor and underprivileged people, as this group constitutes the bulk of any community. The idea of Government to citizens (G2C) became the major theme for effective governance and had long been practiced in caliphate Umar’s governance. For example, to ensure that nobody slept hungry in his empire, he used to walk through the streets almost every night to see if there was any one who was needy or ill. His house as Darul Adal (house of justice). Also, Omar was the first Caliph to be called (Amir alMu'minin; Commander of the Faithful).
Hazrat Umar as Caliph
After the demise of the Holy Prophet, Hazrat Umar was in deep sorrow at that time Hazrat Abu Bakar consoled him. At that time a dispute arose that who would take the responsibility after the death of the Holy Prophet then Umar addressed Muslims about great character of Hazrat Abu Bakar relating his closeness to the Holy Prophet and suggested to make him the first caliph of Islam. After the death of Hazrat Abu Bakar Hazrat Umar took the responsibility and became the second Caliph. He followed the footsteps of Muhammad to the fullest extent. It was Hazrat Umar under whose rule Islam became an international power and the mighty empires of Persia and Byzantine collapse before the army of Islam. Within ten years of his glorious rule, the whole of the Persian Empire, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and a part of Turkey came under the banner of Islam and the nations entered the layer of Islam.
Umar bin Al Khattab was also an excellent administrator who originated an efficient system of administration. Hence he was the real founder of a political system of Islam. He imposed Divine Law as the code of a newly formed International Islamic State; he safeguarded the internal safety by introducing the police force. He gave stipends to the poor; he constructed headquarters and forts for the safety of Islamic armies; he founded new cities for the growth of Islamic culture and civilization; he improved agriculture and economics of the Islamic Empire; he founded the educational system in an Islamic State; in brief he was the founder of a great Islamic Empire.
In short, Hazrat Umar is the role model for every Muslim. He was an embodiment of justice, principles, piety, humility, and character. He performed all his roles whether personal or professional with intensity and not a single example can be put forward which shows that he performed his role less than perfect.
Hazrat Umar's Services to Islam
Hazrat Umar had great love for Allah and Rasulallah. He participated in almost all the big battles: Badr, Uhud, Ahzab, Khaibar, Hunain etc. In the expedition of Tabuk, he gave half of his wealth in the path of Allah.
He was next to Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) in the sacrifice of his belongings for the cause of Allah. Rasulallah (s.a.w) also had a deep love for him. Once he remarked, "If a prophet had to come after me, he would have been Umar". In another Hadith mentioned in Bukhari, Hazrat Abu Hurairah narrated that the Holy Prophet said, "In Bani Isra'il (Israelites), there were people who were not prophets but talked to Allah. Was anyone in my Ummah like those persons, he would be Umar".
The death of the Holy Prophet was a great shock to him, and he could not believe it until Hazrat Abu Bakr reminded him of a clear verse of the Holy Qur'an on the subject. He then went to the Council Hall along with Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) where the people of Madinah had assembled to select the First Caliph. Hazrat Umar was the first person to pledge loyalty (Bai'at) at the hand of Hazrat Abu Bakr, and then helped him throughout the duration of his rule.
The Political Legacy
As the dsecond of the four Rashidun Caliphs and one of the greatest personalities of the history of Islam. He succeeded Abu Bakr (632–634) as the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate on 23rd August, 63‴ 4 CE. He was an expert Islamic jurist known for his pious and just nature, which earned him the epithet Al-Farooq.
Umar is considered as a political genius, as an architect of the Islamic Empire. He is regarded as the 52nd most influential figure in world history. Umar remained politically stagnant during Prophet's era, however after his death, it was Umar's brilliance that Abu Bakr was elected caliph. Umar successfully broke the alliance of the tribes of Medina who claim the caliphate to be their right, paving the way for the succession of Abu Bakr. During Abu Bakr's era, he actively participated as his Secretary and main adviser. He proved himself as an excellent manager during the year of the great famine when his dynamic abilities saved millions from starvation. He is best known for building up an efficient administrative structure of the empire that held together his vast realm. He organized an effective network of intelligence. His judicial reforms were fairly modern and advanced in nature when compared to contemporary systems of his era. He opposed the construction of the present day Suez Canal, as it posed a threat to the security of Medina. One of the reasons for the compactness of his political rule in the conquered lands is reputed to be his policy of tolerance to their religious beliefs and imposition of far lower taxes on them as compared to the Sassanid Persian Empire and Byzantine Empire. Their local administration was kept untouched and several of the former Byzantine and Persian officials were retained on their services under Umar's governors.
Umar is reported to have wished an official tour across his domain to personally examine the condition of his subjects. In 641, before the conquest of the Persian empire, Umar is reported to have said: “…..If I would live few more years, I wish to visit Syria next year, then next Iraq and then the next year Egypt to personally check the conditions of the subjects and inquire whether the mandate is followed or not….”
At that time, Umar made this statement, Persia was not yet conquered (conquest of Persia began in 642). He would walk the streets of Medina with a whip in his hand, and it is said that Umar's whip was feared more than the sword of another man. He is famous to covert night tours of the city to know the secret life of his domain. The tradition followed by some of the Abbasid caliphs and even Mughul rulers of the Indian subcontinent.
Umar's swift imparting of justice against his governors for any misdeeds they commit made even famous powerful governors like Muawiyah scared of him. He used to monitor very closely the public policy and had kept the needs of the public central to his leadership approach. As second caliph of Islam, he refused to chop off the hands of the thieves because he felt he had fallen short of his responsibility to provide meaningful employment to all his subjects. As a ruler of a vast kingdom, his vision was to ensure that every one in his kingdom should sleep on a full stomach. He said: “….If a dog dies hungry on the banks of the River Euphrates, I will be responsible for dereliction of duty.”
He also knew that just having a vision is not enough unless it is supported by effective strategies. He didn't only have a vision; he truly transformed his vision into actions. For example, to ensure that nobody sleeps hungry in his empire, he used to walk through the streets almost every night to see if there is any one needy or ill.
Umar is remembered as a rigid Muslim of a sound and just disposition in matters of the religion of Allah. He patched his clothes with skin and used to ride his donkey without the saddle, rarely laughing and never joking with anyone. On his ring is written the words "Enough is Death as a reminder to you O' 'Umar". He did not seek advancement for his own family, but rather sought to advance the interests of the Muslim community, the ummah. The general sentiment for Umar is summarized by one of Muhammad's companions, Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud: “Umar's submission to Islam was a conquest, his migration was a victory, his Imamate (period of rule) was a blessing”.
Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab - Political and Governmental Actions
Umar took particular pains to provide effective and speedy justice for the people. He set up an effective system of judicial administration, "here under justice was administered according to the principles of Islam.
Qadis were appointed at all administrative levels for the administration of justice. Umar was the first ruler in history to separate judiciary from the executive. The Qadis were chosen for their integrity and learning in Islamic law. High salaries were fixed for the Qadis so that there was no temptation to bribery. Wealthy men and men of high social status were appointed as Qadis so that they might not have the temptation to take bribes, or be influenced by the social position of any body. The Qadis were not allowed to engage in trade. Judges were appointed in sufficient number, and there was no district which did not have a Qadi.
Umar issued 'Farmans' from time to time laying down the principles for the administration of justice. In one of the Farmans issued to Judicial Officers, Umar laid down the following principles:
"Praise to God.
Verily justice is an important obligation to God and man. You have been charged with this responsibility. Discharge the responsibility so that you may win the approbation of God and the goodwill of the people.
Treat the people equally in your presence, in your company, and in your decisions, so that the weak despair of injustice and the high-placed have no hope of your favour.
The onus of proof lies on the plaintiff. He who denies must do so on oath. Compromise is permissible and provided. It does not turn the unlawful into lawful, and the lawful into unlawful. Let nothing prevent you from changing your previous decision if after consideration you feel that the previous decision was incorrect.
When you are in doubt on a question and find nothing about it in the Quran or in the Sunnah of the Prophet, think over the question over and over again. Ponder over the precedents and analogous cases, and then decide by analogy.
A term should be fixed for the person who wants to produce witnesses. If he proves his case, get him his right. Otherwise, the suit should be dismissed.
History has preserved the names of some of the eminent persons who held judicial office during the caliphate of Umar.
1- Zaid bin Thabit was appointed by Umar as the Qadi of Madina. He was well versed is Syriac and Hebrew, and was an expert in civil law.
2- Ka'b-bin-Sur al-Azdi was the Qadi of Basra. He was a man of keen insight and wide learning. Many of the dicta laid down by him became classical and were reported by Imam Ibn Sirin.
3- Ibada bin al-Samat was the Qadi of Palestine. He was one of the five men who had memorised the Holy Quran in the lifetime of the Holy Prophet. Umar held him in great esteem.
4- Abdullah bin Masud was the Qadi of Kufa. He was a man of great scholarship and judicial acumen. He is considered the Father of the Hanafi law.
5- Qadi Shuraih succeeded Abdullah bin Masud as the Qadi of Kufa. He was well known throughout the country for his intelligence and keen sense of judgment. He was regarded as a model Judge. Ali used to call him 'Aqd-ul-Arab i.e. the most judicious of all the Judges of Arabia.
About Qadi Shuraih's appointment as a Judge there is a story on record. It is related that Umar purchased a horse on approval, and gave it to somebody to try it. The horse got hurt in the ride, and Umar wanted to return it, but the owner refused to take it back. In the dispute that arose as a consequence, Shuraih was chosen as the arbitrator. He gave the verdict that if the horse was ridden with the permission of the owner it could be returned; otherwise not. Umar said that that was the right decision and at once appointed Shuraih as the Qadi of Kufa.
Achievements of Hazrat Umar
His khilaafate was for a period of 10 years, 6 months and 5 days.
In this area, Umar would excel from other for many reasons, some of which are that in his time the state was stable. He dealt with many matters quickly and before they would rise to cause. It was also the sharpness of his personality and austerity that quelled many of the troubles that would appear to his successors. Here is some of his major achievements in list form.
1. Establishment of Public Treasury.
2. Establishments of courts of Justice and appointment of Judges.
3. Placing the reserve army on the state’s payroll and organization of the War department.
4. Establishment of Postal service.
5. Establishment of the Land Revenue department.
6. Survey and assessment of lands.
7. Public census.
8. Punishment of those who practice Monopoly by exile to different lands.
9. Establishment and use of Jails.
10. Building of Canals and Bridges.
11. First to use the Whip.
12. Establishment of Public Rest Areas, hostels and Wudu (Ablution) Stations.
13. Fixing the date to the Start of the Migration of the Messenger.
14. Dividing the state and the conquered territories into provinces.
15. Founding of new cities (al-Amsar) such as Kufah, Basarah and Fustat.
16. Zakat on Produce of the sea, such as fish, Lobster, shrimp etc. and appointment of a responsible official.
17. Use of secret reports and specially designated emissaries to provide first reports as what is really going on in different provinces.
18. Salary for Imams, Muadhins (Callers to prayer) teachers and public lecturers.
19. Stipends for the poor among the Jews and Christians who lived in conquered lands.
20. Punishment for drunkenness, written satires and lampoons.
21. Establishment of guilds for certain trades.
22. Holding tarawih (Ramadan night prayers) in congregation. Before his time it was done individually.
23. Providing lighting in the Mosques at night.
24. Persuading Abu Bakr to collect the Qur’an in one book.
25. Establishment of Military bases at strategic points in the different provinces.
26. Establishment of the Police department.
27. Personally making nightly rounds to check on the condition of the people first hand.
28. Formulation of the Principal of Qiyas (Analogical Reasoning.) for determining rulings on newly encountered matters in Fiqh (Jurisprudence.)
29. Establishment of a more exact system of calculation of the inheritance.
30. Limiting the relationship between Muslims and Non-Muslims.
31. Establishing a stable for the lost camels.
32. State intervention to control the price of merchandise.
33. First to enlarge the al-Haram (the Sacred Mosque) at Mecca. First to place a cover on the Kaaba.
34. Discovered the place of Isra, Ascension of the Messenger to heavens at Jerusalem.
Hazrat Umar was truly a genius. He was a natural leader and had a great political acumen. Following are few examples to briefly explain this point. Caliph Hazrat Umar had established an inquiry commission to ensure that his governors and other state officials abide by the rules and do not transgress a tiny bit. The Chief Inquirer was Muhammad bin Maslamah Ansari to investigate complaints and any citizen of the state could directly report their complaint to the Khalifah in person or via letter.
He had a rule that the governors should live a simple and modest life like an average citizen. This meant that the governors and officials were not allowed to wear fancy clothes or robes, eat expensive delicacies, build mansions or palaces and have security guards, because that would set them apart from the masses, which would restrict citizens from having easy access to them.
Simplicity Among the State Officials
Once a complaint was filed against S’ad bin Waqas, governor of Kufah who was also a distinguished companion of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), that he had built a palace and appointed two guards at the door. Khalifah ‘Umar sent Muhammad bin Maslamah with the order to verify the complaint and burn the palace. Inquiry Commissioner found the complaint to be true, and he burnt down the palace while Governor S’ad bin Waqas stood and watched.
According to a narration in Kitab-ul-Kharaj, on another occasion Khalifah ‘Umar was walking in the streets of Madinah (the capital), when a citizen rebuked him saying “Omar, do you think you will escape divine punishment by devising few regulations for your officers? Do you know that ‘Ayyad bin Ghanam, governor of Jazirah, wears fine robes and keeps a security guard at his door?
Khalifah Umar immediately dispatched his Chief Inquirer to investigate and bring ‘Ayyad back to the capital in whatever condition he is found. Muhammad bin Maslamah reached Egypt and found a guard at ‘Ayyad’s house and him in a fine robe. He brought him to Madinah in the same clothes. Khalifah ‘Umar said him change his fine clothes to coarse wool, and ordered him to take a flock of goats and graze them in the jungle. Governor ‘Ayyad showed hesitation and felt this to be a sort of humiliation but Khalifah ‘Umar said to ‘Ayyad bin Ghanam that he should not be ashamed of the job, as his father had been a goatherd and therefore had for this reason got the name of Ghanam. Governor ‘Ayyad made sincere repentance and did his duty conscientiously as long as he lived.
However, on the other hand, when Khalifah ‘Umar was visiting Syria, he saw Ameer Mu’awiyyah, Governor of Syria, in fine robes and in all his glory. Umar remarked: “Why all this Khosrau like splendor? Ameer Mu’awiyyah explained that he had to deal with those who were used to the ways of the Romans and it was not possible to maintain the empire’s prestige in their eyes without such paraphernalia. Khalifah Umar was satisfied with this answer.
Some may feel that burning a palace down or not allowing fine clothes for officials might violate the governor’s individual right. Allamah Shibli No’mani addresses this concern and explains the wisdom behind Khalifah Umar order. He explains as follows: “Such proceedings do appear objectionable, as interference in the people’s private lives and manner of living is negatory to the principle of individual freedom, but the spirit of equality and democracy which Omar wished to infuse into the country was not possible of realization unless he himself and those associated with him in government set the highest example of it in their own lives. The commonality might do what they please, for the effect of their example remains confined to a narrow circle. But if the people who are charged with governance and form the pillars of the state live in a manner which distinguishes them from the common people, the latter will soon develop a sense of alienation and inferiority.”
Preventing Corruption From Taking Root
Another example of his political ingenuity is that he took active steps to ensure corruption doesn’t take root during his reign. Since the purpose of the state was to serve the people and not to oppress them, he took measures that for many of us today may seem a obvious solution, but not so much during that era. Allamah Shibli No’mani explains it eloquently as follows: “An excellent rule which Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab adopted to ensure the honesty and rectitude of officials was of giving them high salaries. Europe has learnt this principle after centuries of experience, while Asiatic countries have not yet realized its wisdom, for which reason bribery and peculation have become a common feature here. In the time of Umar, living was exceedingly cheap and money was scarce. For all that, salaries were comparatively high. Provincial governors received as much as five thousand rupees a month in addition to their shares in the spoils of war. Mu’awiyyah received one thousand dinars a month.”
Shibli No’mani’s book was originally published around 1898 when he mentioned that Asiatic countries haven’t realized the wisdom behind having higher salaries for the state officials. Ironically, Asiatic countries still have this problem. The only difference is that it has gotten way worst.
Principal Events of the Caliphate of Hazrat Umar
Umar's caliphate is notable for its many conquests. His generals conquered Iraq, Iran, Azerbaijan, Kirman, Seistan, Khurasan, Syria, Jordan, Palestine and Egypt, and incorporated them into the empire of the Muslims. All of these were permanent conquests. The Romans lost Syria, Palestine and Egypt for ever; and in Persia, the Sassani Empire ceased to exist.
Introduction of the Islamic Calendar
For the first time in the history of Islam, Islamic calendar was introduced in the present form by Hazrat Umar. The date of start of this calendar was fixed as the date of the Hijrah (migration) of Rasulallah (s.a.w). Thus the calendar is also known as the Hijrah Calendar.
Civil and Military Administration and Policy
The period of Hazrat Umar's Khilafat undoubtedly is the Golden Age of Islam in every respect.
He was a man of extraordinary genius who not only moulded the destiny of the nation but made history of his own.
He followed the footsteps of Rasulallah (s.a.w) to the fullest extent. It was Hazrat Umar under whose rule of Islam became an international power and the mighty empires of Persia and Byzantine crumbled before the army of Islam.
Within ten years of his glorious rule, the whole of the Persian Empire, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and a part of Turkey came under the banner of Islam and the nations entered the fold of Islam.
He was not only a conqueror but also an exemplary administrator who originated an efficient system of administration, and thus he was the real founder of political system of Islam. He enforced Divine Law (Shari'ah) as the code of a newly formed International Islamic Empire.
Since the empire had grown enormously in all directions, Hazrat Umar had to establish an administrative system. Hazrat Umar, therefore, left the Persian and the Roman framework of administration in the conquered provinces undisturbed. The Persian and the Roman staff carried on the day-to-day work as before.
Hazrat Umar founded numerous military cantonments in Iraq, Syria and Egypt. Since he wanted the Arabs to be a purely fighting and ruling class, he did not allow them to buy land and to settle down or to become farmers in the conquered territories.
To assess land revenue, Hazrat Umar again had to retain the Persian and the Romans systems. But in Iraq it was found necessary to survey the arable lands and to assess tax on them. Arabs knew less than nothing about assessing land revenue. There was, however, one exception in Uthman bin Hunaif of Medina. He was a man of outstanding ability as a revenue expert.
He appointed Uthman bin Hunaif as the commissioner of land development in Iraq. Qadi Yusuf says that Uthman bin Hunaif was an authority in all Arabia on taxation, assessment of land revenue and land reclamation (Kitabul-Kharaj and Siyar-ul-Ansar).
Within less than a year, Uthman bin Hunaif had completed the job of taking measurements of the whole new province, and of making assessments for the collection of land revenue. He was, thus, the first Financial Commissioner of Iraq.
When Syria, Jordan and Palestine were conquered, Umar appointed Yazid bin Abu Sufyan the governor of Syria; Shurahbil bin Hasana governor of Jordan, and Amr bin Aas the governor of Palestine. Abu Obaida bin al-Jarrah was appointed governor of the city of Damascus. When Amr bin Aas conquered Egypt, Umar made him its governor.
Yazid bin Abu Sufyan, the governor of Syria, died in the plague of 18 A.H. When Umar heard the news of his death, he went to see Abu Sufyan to offer condolences to him. But Abu Sufyan interrupted Umar's commiseration, and asked him, “Whom are you going to appoint governor of Syria in place of my late son, Yazid?” Umar said: “Of course, his brother, Muawiya.” Umar appointed Muawiya the new governor of Syria. When Abu Obaida died, Umar placed Damascus also under Muawiya's jurisdiction. He fixed his salary at 60,000 pieces of gold a year.
Umar was a most exacting taskmaster for all his generals and governors. He was quick to lend his ears to any complaint against them.
Tabari has recorded an incident in Volume VI of his History. Umar was in Damascus and Muawiya came to see him every day – mornings and evenings – bedecked in regal outfit, with splendidly caparisoned mounts and escorts. When Umar commented, rather acidly, upon his pageantry, he said that Syria was swarming with Roman spies, and it was necessary to impress them with the “glory” of Islam. His pageantry, he said, was only the outward emblem of that glory - the glory of Islam.
But Umar was not convinced, and remarked: “This is a trap laid by the slick and guileful man.”
Muawiya answered: “Then I will do whatever you say, O Commander of the Faithful.”
Umar said: “If I raise an objection to anything, you baffle and bewilder me with words. I am at a loss to know what to do.”
Some Reflections on the Conquests of the Muslims
Hazrat Umar's generals had conquered Persia, Syria and Egypt. His successors in the Umayyad dynasty pushed those conquests as far as southern France in the west, and the western frontiers of China and the Indus valley in the east. The students of history have expressed amazement at the speed and the extent of the conquests of the Arabs in the seventh/eighth centuries. They achieved all those conquests within 100 years – truly one of the most remarkable series of conquests in world history.
Many centuries later, the search goes on for the answer to the question: How did the Arabs conquer so much so soon? Many reasons have been given by the historians for the success of the Arab arms, among them: civil war and anarchy in Persia; a war between Persia and Rome that lasted for 26 years, and which left both empires utterly exhausted, bleeding and prostrate; the disgruntlement of the Roman subjects in Syria and Egypt who welcomed the Arabs as liberators, the dependence of both of the Persians and the Romans upon mercenaries and conscripts who lacked morale; persecution on grounds of religion of dissident sects and creeds by both the Persians and the Romans.
Also, the Persians and the Romans were handicapped by heavy baggage, and they lacked mobility. The Arabs, on the other hands, were highly mobile.
Joel Carmichael's Objection
The predominant incentives that drove the Bedouin out of the peninsula were bodily hunger and greed, natural consequences of the straitened circumstances there and the endless opportunities for enrichment offered by the cultivated societies they overran. Thus, though there were doubtless also men who “killed for the sake of the hereafter,” the masses of tribesmen surely “killed for earthly lust.”
The otherworldly aspects of Prophet Mohammed's preaching were completely eclipsed during the conquests by the incredible booty that could be won: thus a Qurayshite notable, who was considered so pious that he was one of the ten men to whom Prophet Mohammed could give his personal word during their lifetime that they would get into paradise because of their zeal for Islam, left behind an estate whose net worth seems to have been between 35 and 52 million dirhems; he had eleven houses in Medina alone, as well as others in Basra, Kufa, Fustat and Alexandria.
Another of these ten pious men personally promised paradise by Prophet Mohammed owned real property in the amount of 30 million dirhems; on his death his steward had over two million dirhems in cash.
There seems to be no doubt that the last thing the Muslim Arabs were thinking of was converting anyone. More particularly, the pietism that was to become the hallmark of later Islam, at least in certain of its manifestations, was utterly alien to the initial Arab conquerors.
(The Shaping of the Arabs, New York, 1967)
It is true that religion was the factor that propelled the Muslims out of Arabia; but once it had done so, it did not play any significant role in the conquests that followed. Its role was catalytic in the eruption of the Arabs. If religion and piety were the cause of the success of the Muslims in their campaigns, then how would one explain the success of the nations which were not Muslim? Some of those nations were the enemies of Islam yet they were, at one time, triumphant on a scale that matched, and sometimes surpassed, the conquests of the Muslims.
In the thirteenth century, the Mongols, led by Genghiz Khan, shook the whole earth. They were the most dangerous enemies that Islam ever met. All of Asia was at their fee. Their conquests were more rapid and on an even grander scale than the conquests of the Arabs.
Within fifty years, they had conquered all of China, all of Russia, all of Central and Western Asia, and had penetrated into Europe as far as Hungary.
In the 16thcentury, the Castilian Conquistadores put Spain in the front rank of the nations of the world. A mere handful of them left the shores of Spain, and conquered the whole new world. They laid two continents at the feet of the king of Spain. It is true that they were inspired by religious zeal even though they did not have much piety – but it was Catholic zeal. Their zeal was not so much unIslamic as it was anti-Islamic. Just before discovering and conquering the Americas, they had defeated the Muslims of Granada in 1492, had expelled them from Spain, and had obliterated every vestige of Islamic culture from the Iberian peninsula.
In the 19th century, the British carved out an empire for themselves over which the sun never set. In North America, they ruled the northern half of the continent; in Africa, their empire extended from Alexandria in the north to Cape Town in the south; and in South Asia, they conquered from Kabul to Rangoon. They colonized Australia and New Zealand. They established Pax Britannia over all this immense area, one-fourth of the earth.
The hundred years from 632 to 732 were the century of the Arabs. They were supreme, they were triumphant, they were irresistible and they were invincible – in that century. Islam united them and gave them a sense of direction, purpose and propulsive power. Without Islam, their future would have been just as irrelevant and barren as their past had been.
(The Shaping of the Arabs, New York, 1967)
D. S. Margoliouth's Fabrication
Othman, son of Affan, six years junior from the Prophet, was a cloth merchant; he also did some business as a money-lender, advancing sums for enterprises of which he was to enjoy half the profits (Ibn Sa'd, iii, 111), and in money matters showed remarkable acuteness (Wakidi W. 231). He was not a fighting man, as his subsequent history proved.
Ibn Sa'd says in his Tabqaat about Othman: “When he died, he left 35 million dirhems, 150,000 dinars, 3000 camels, and many horses. He built himself a palace in Medina with marble and teakwood. He had 1000 slaves.”
(Mohammed and the Rise of Islam, London, 1931)
Bernard Lewis's Barefaceted Falsification
Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas built his house in Al-Aqiq. He made it high and spacious, and put balconies around the upper part. Sa'id ibn al-Musayyib said that when Zayd ibn Thabit died, he left ingots of gold and silver that were broken up with axes, in addition to property and estates to the value of 100,000 dinars.
(Islam in History, New York, 1973)
William Muir writes:
The love that Abdur Rahman bore his master, Muhammad, was deeply moving. His wives and concubines prepared delicacies of many colors and tastes for him. When he sat down to eat, recollection came to him of the Spartan times of the Apostle. He “missed” him and he “missed” those times, shed many tear, and then gobbled up everything on the table.”
(The Life of Mohammed, London, 1877)
Distortive Reply to these baseless and historically unproved allegations
First of all I would like to convey that there are so many books published on this topic. Actually this section requires a separate book on this topic however I am extremely eager and keen give the crucial reply to these questions in short. These European and American writers made great injustice in alleging the holy companions. They inflicted the unjust blame to the great companions and fabricated such things that were never proven in the entire history of Islam by distorting the facts and realities.
They actually conceal the hatred against Islam. That's why they did pose these kinds of baseless allegations. Their intention was to completely misshape the fair image of Islam. We can confidently in the light of Islamic history say that they misrepresented, misquoted, misinterpreted, misconceived and misperceived those who spent all their belongings in the name of Islam. They distorted the facts.
Being Second Caliph in Muslim History
After Abu Bakr, Umar (R.A) took over the Caliphate and became second Khalifah. His worthiness to be held as the Ameer of Momineen can be validated from the following Hadith in which he has been mentioned as one of the most righteous persons.
“Follow after me from my companions Abu-Bakr and ‘Umar.” (Tirmidhi)
During his time, Hazrat Umar (R.A) acted very astutely, made the social system just through Zakah (Charity) to the extent that there did not exist even a single beggar on streets, set up courts of justice, made Bait ul Maal (Public Treasury) for fair keeping and provision of funds, established postal services, division of larger territories into provinces for equal distribution of resources, allocation of stipends for minorities in conquered areas, starting “Taraweeh” during Ramadan, enlargement of the Masjid ul Haram, the first Muslim ruler to discover Isra, where the ascension of the Holy Prophet took place at Jerusalem. He was also the one who made the Muslim Calendar by taking suggestions of others and counted it from the migration year. There are many other great achievements of Hazrat Umar (R.A) during his reign which majorly include the expansion of Muslim state to the far off places well beyond the boundaries of the Arabia, including the conquests of Damascus, Iraq, Iran, Rome, Persia, and Jerusalem, Egypt etc. The Muslim control had expanded more or less 22, 00,000 square miles under the command of Farooq e Azam. He ran all the matters with such fairness that once in a sermon he was accused of having taken two pieces of cloth from Bait ul Maal, but he cleared the matter well by stating that he was given the extra cloth by his son Abdullah.
In short, Hazrat Umar (R.A) had the greatest possible personality characteristics that made him able to be called Al-Farooq by the Holy Prophet Himself. He was a true companion, counselor, scholar, ruler, a brave man, highly judicious and above all a great reformer in the Muslim history. In 23 A.H, Farooq e Azam (R.A) died as a result of assassination at the hands of a non believer who martyred him while he was praying in the mosque due to a personal resentment. He is buried next to the Holy Prophet Muhammad as per his wish.
Even if a Lamb Dies...
Ameer-ul-Mu`mineen Ali has mentioned: Once I saw Ameer-ul-Mu`mineen Umar Bin Khattab rushing somewhere riding on a camel, I said, ‘Ameer-ul-Mu`mineen! Where are you heading to? He replied, ‘A camel donated in Sadaqah (charity) has fled away and I am going to look for it.
Once Hazrat Umar took honey from the treasury after public permission, fell ill. The physicians prescribed honey for treatment. The honey was available in the treasury but he was not willing to take it without the prior permission of the Muslims. Hence, he visited the main Masjid and gathered the maximum number of Muslims to seek their permission. When people allowed, then he used it.
Once Hazrat Umar was giving an oil massage to the camels donated in Sadaqah, a person respectfully said, ‘Why do you not get this job done by any servant?’ He replied, ‘Who else can be a better servant than me! The one who is a ruler of the Muslims, in fact, is a servant of them.
The Pioneer of Islamic Democracy
Hazrat Umar (R.A) was the pioneer of modern civilisation who formed a state based upon the Islamic democratic system, the system which was incorporated in the West as late as 19th and 20th centuries. He was the greatest democratic administrator whose example is unparalleled not only in the history of Islam but also in the history of modern civilisation. A vast part of the Middle East, Persian Empire and Byzantium, was conquered during the ten years of his Khilafat which he consolidated into a state governed by Islam i.e. laws.
The constitution of Islamic Khilafat during the time of Hazrat Umar was based entirely on the Islamic democratic system. All matters were decided after consultation with the Shura (the council of advisors).
He remarked, "It is essential for a Khalifah to consult his Shura." Once he said, "I do not desire that you may follow anything that arises from my caprice".
Hazrat Umar had clearly stated on various occasions that he should be obeyed as long as he was obeying Allah and the Holy Prophet. Muslims and non-Muslims were treated alike. Although the Arab peninsula was declared to be purely an Islamic State, his attitude towards the non-Muslims was very tolerant. He allowed the Jews and the Christians, living in the Peninsula, to stay there if they so wished and nobody would interfere in their religious affairs. To those who desired to migrate he ensured a safe journey up to the borders. Hazrat Umar also gave compensation for their properties and other facilities.
Caliph Umar’s Leadership in New Era of Establishment and Introduction
Umar’s leadership of the Muslim community had been envisioned by the Prophet, and is described in several narrations. One, recorded in Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, reports that the Prophet (SAW) said: “While I was sleeping, I saw myself drawing water from a well with a bucket. Abū Bakr came and drew a bucket or two. Then, Umar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb came and the bucket in his hands turned into a very large one. I had never seen anyone so strong. All the people drank and watered their camels.” This ḥadīth foretold the rule of the two prominent companions of the Prophet and implied that Umar(RA), by serving people with a large bucket of water, would strengthen Islam more than any of his predecessors. Indeed, it is undoubtedly true that Umar’s rule saw Islam expand right across the Middle East. He also ushered in a period of governance based upon virtue, piety and wisdom.
As a leading companion, Hazrat Umar is unsurpassed by any other contributor to Islamic civilization. His wisdom and foresight, his guidance and just rule, his integrity and sincerity in spreading Islamic teachings, render him one of the most prominent architects of Islamic civilization. To give some examples of his specific contributions, it was upon his suggestion and in consultation with the Caliph Abū Bakr (RA) that the Qur’an was finally compiled into a complete volume. During his own rule, Umar established the city of Prophet, Madinah, as the centre of fatwā (legal verdicts and opinions) and fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). He kept those companions who were known for their knowledge and legal opinions close to him in Madinah.
Leading scholars from amongst the companions were also dispatched to other cities, in order to teach the people about Islam. For example, Umar sent Abdullāh ibn Mas’ud, Hudhayfah ibn al-Yamān, Ammār ibn Yāsir, ‘Imrān ibn Ḥusain and Salmān al-Fārsī to Iraq. Likewise, Mu‘ādh ibn Jabal, ‘Ubādah ibn al-Ṣāmit, Abū al-Dardā’, Bilāl ibn Rabāh and others went to Syria, where they established Homs, Damascus and Palestine as top centers of learning. Umar would often communicate with them and supervise their legal opinions and, for their part, they would refer issues back to him if they found them difficult to resolve.
Umar also had direct influence over the establishment of the first prominent schools of fiqhin Makkah, Basra, Kufa, and Syria. For example, he personally chose and trained ‘Abdullāh ibn ‘Abbās, the future leader of the Makkan School, keeping him in his consultative circle and grooming him as a leading mufassir (exegete of the Qur’an). Likewise, Abū Mūsā al-Ash‘arī and Anas bin Mālik, the forerunners of the Basran School, were both close companions of ‘Umar during their stay in Madinah. Umar would also often send scholars to the army before it was dispatched, in order to teach soldiers about Islam and guide them according to the prophetic method. He was influential in formulating the concept of qiyās (legal analogy), often writing to his governors and judges to recommend implementing this legal principle in cases where there was no precedence in the Qur’an and Sunnah. In addition to these points, Umar was the first person to formally organize the night prayers (tarāwīh) during the month of Ramadan.
Umar also successfully introduced many administrative innovations. He was, for example, the first person to introduce an Islamic calendar based on the Arabic months, and beginning with Prophet’s migration from Makkah to Madinah. He also introduced the Bayt al-Maal (public treasury), from which public welfare funds, stipends for the poor, and government salaries were paid. During the era of his predecessors, there had been no need for a Bayt al-Maal, as the Islamic state had been very small and wealth could be distributed immediately. As the territorial domains of Islam spread under caliph Umar, however, the need for a more systematic method of payment developed. Notably, under Umar’s) government, stipends were also given to poor non-Muslim citizens.
Umar also established judicial courts, learning centers, and a government department tasked with controlling markets. He introduced appropriate salaries for judges, teachers, soldiers, public servants and governors. His fear of misappropriation and corruption led him to open a public department for dealing with complaints against government officials. He was the first to introduce land taxation (kharaj) in Islamic territory. As the borders of the Islamic world spread further, he also sought to organize it more efficiently. As such, he divided the new empire into administrative divisions, based around cities. He also established new cities, and provided incentives for cultivating barren land. This facilitated the rebuilding of societies beyond the major cities and enhanced the state’s general economic condition.
Caliph Umar was also the first Muslim ruler to dig canals, notably between the Tigris River and the city of Basra. These were designed to provide cities with water for both drinking and irrigation. Bridges, roads and highways were likewise constructed under Umar. One of the fundamental rights, Umar ensured for his subjects was their freedom of expression. In his first address as Caliph, he stressed the right of the people to criticize him and, if necessary, unseat him.
Indeed, he was once questioned by a layman about a piece of cloth, he had used to stitch his dress; the layman had noticed that it was longer than the shares of cloth other people had received. Umar’s son, Abdullāh, then stood up and informed the group that he had added his share to his father’s because, as Umar was a tall person, he required some extra cloth to make his dress.
On another occasion, Umar expressed his interest in fixing the dower for women at the time of their marriages. In response, a lady stood up and raised her voice against Umar’s concern, reminding him that Allah had not fixed the dower, even if it be given in bulk. Umar accepted the lady’s opinion, thanking her for correcting him.
Muhammad ibn Maslamah
He was one of Hazrat Umar's most trusted men. In important cases Muhammad ibn Maslamah was deputed by Umar to proceed to the spot, investigate the charge and take action. Sometimes an Inquiry Commission was constituted to investigate the charge. On occasions the officers against whom complaints were received were summoned to Medina, and charged in Umar's administrative court. Umar was known for this intelligence service through which he made his officials accountable.
Caliph Umar organized the army as a State department. This reform was introduced in 637 A beginning was made with the "Quraysh (tribe)" and the "Ansar (Islam)" Ansars and the system was gradually extended to the whole of Arabia and to Muslims of conquered lands. A register of all adults who could be called to war was prepared, and a scale of salaries was fixed. All men registered were liable to military service. They were divided into two categories, namely: Those who formed the regular standing army; and Those that lived in their homes, but were liable to be called to the colors whenever needed. Allowances were paid during the harvesting season. The armies of the Caliphs were mostly paid in cash salaries. In contrast to many post-Roman polities in Europe, grants of land, or of rights to collect taxes directly from the payers, were of only minor importance. A major consequence of this was that the army directly depended on the state for its subsistence which, in turn, meant that the military had to control the state apparatus.
Promotions in the army were made on the strength of the length of service or exceptional merit. Officership was an appointment and not a rank. Officers were appointed to command for the battle or the campaign; and once the operation was concluded, they could well find themselves in the ranks again. Leave of absence was given to army men at regular intervals. The troops stationed at far off places were given leave after four months. Each army corps was accompanied by an officer of the treasury, an Accountant, and a number of interpreters besides a number of Physicians and Surgeons. Expeditions were undertaken according to seasons. Expeditions in cold countries were undertaken during the summer, and in hot countries in winter. Umar established military cantonments on strategic positions throughout the empire to deal with any emergency efficiently and quickly. The garrison towns of Fustat were founded by Umar. They were also provincial capitals of their respective provinces.
Umar stressed the independence of the judiciary and declared it a sovereign state organ that could proceed without any pressure of state. No one was exempt from the law, not even the Caliph himself. During early years of his rule he also acted as a chief justice of Madinah but later due to increasing burden of work he was left with no option but to assign his office to some other person, he accordingly appointed Abu Dardah, a well known Sahabi though he didn't resign completely from the office and Abu Dardah only acted as his secondary.
To all the major provincial cities, Umar would personally appointed judges. Umar entrusted the office of justice only to those selected persons who could fulfill his criteria for this office, some of which are as follow: Must be well reputed for his morals, modesty, and interpersonal relations. Must be intelligent, and astute in judicial decisions and enjoy his own personal view regarding all social issues that could enable them in the formulation of precedent case law. He must be highly qualified in Fiqh. Must be socially a powerful and influential personality so that he might not come under pressure of any powerful perpetrator. Appointment of judges in districts and small towns were made by his appointed provincial.
Umar appointed judges with very high salaries and for lifelong tenure this as in modern times, was to make sure that judges could not be drawn towards bribery and a non prejudice and unbiased verdicts could be reached. Umar also held that in the court the Judge should not be praised and that all acts should be judged according to the test of public interest.
The concepts of welfare pension were introduced in early Islamic law as forms of (charity), one of the "Five Pillars of Islam" under Umar in the 7th century. The "Tax" (including Zakat and) collected in the treasury of an Islamic government were used to provide income for the including the elderly orphans, widows and the disabled. According to the Islamic jurist Al-Ghazali (Algazel, 1058–1111), the government was also expected to stockpile food supplies in every region in case a disaster famine occurred. The Caliphate can thus be considered the world's first major welfare state.
The Bayt al-mal aided the Muslim and non-Muslim poor, needy, elderly, orphans, widows, and the disabled. The Bayt al-mal ran for hundreds of years under the Rashidun Caliphate in the 7th century and continued through the Umayyad period (661–750) and well into the Abbasid era. Umar also introduced a child benefit and pensions for the children and the elderly.
One day during the khutbah he said:
O People! Do not increase the mehr of women. If the mehr is fixed more than the mehr of Rasulullah’s wives and daughters, I shall confiscate the extra amount and hand it to the Baitul Maal.” An old woman immediately challenged him, saying: What right do you have to do so when Allah Ta’ala says (in the Qur’aan):
If you (men) have given them mounds of wealth, then do not take back anything of it.’ On hearing this, Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) came down from the mimbar and exclaimed: All people have more knowledge than Umar, even the old lady.”
The Severe Famine and Plague
In the year 17-18 A.H, Hijaz and Syria were faced by severe famine and drought. Hazrat Umar (R.A) took steps to get food supplies from Egypt, part of which had been conquered by Hazrat Amr bin al-'As (R.A). He sent three big ships of grains to Madinah which were unloaded in the presence of Hadzrat Umar (R.A). He himself distributed the grains among the needy.
Hazrat Umar (R.A) did not take any delicacy (butter etc.) during the famine period. When he was requested to take care of his health, he said, "If I don't taste suffering, how can I know the sufferings of others?"
When the famine became intolerable, he prayed to Allah in a big gathering of Muslims. It has been narrated that the prayers had not even finished when rains started to pour down.
About the same time, plague spread in most parts of Iraq, Syria and Egypt and it caused great havoc not only to civilians but also to the Muslim armies. After the plague, Hazrat Umar went to Syria to inspect the losses caused by the plague. Three important figures, Hazrat Abu Ubaidah, Mu'adh bin Jabal and Yazid bin Abu Sufyan (R.A) had passed away. He appointed Mu'awiyah bin Abi Sufyan as the Governor of Damascus in place of his brother Yazid bin Abi Sufyan.
Fall of the Persian Empire
During the time of Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A), Hazrat Khalid bin Walid conquered part of the Persian Empire known as the Kingdom of Hira. Then he was ordered by Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) to join the expedition to Syria.
At the time of his departure, he appointed Muthanna bin Harith as the commander of the Islamic army. The Persians became furious at the loss of the kingdom of Hira and the Emperor sent a large army under the command of a very famous General, Rustam the Commander-in-Chief of Persian armies.
In view of the growing pressure of Persians, Muthanna requested Hazrat Umar (R.A) for reinforcement. At that time there was a large gathering of Muslims in Madinah waiting to take pledge of loyalty (Bai'at) at the hand of the new Khalifa (Hazrat Umar). He put the matter before the Muslims but did not get any response in the beginning. Then Hazrat Umar (R.A) in his sermons stressed the importance of Jihad and a large number of Muslims volunteered to help Muthanna against the Persians. Abu‘Ubaid ath-Thaqafi was appointed as the commander of the Islamic army comprising five thousand men. In the meantime Persians attacked the places conquered by Muslims and they lost some of them. In the early stage of the battles Rustam sent his subordinates to face Muslims.
It is reported from Hazrat Ibn Umar (R.A) that Hazrat Umar (R.A) dispatched an army to Persia, making a man called Sariyya (R.A) the leader of it. It is said that one day Hazrat Umar (R.A) was delivering the Friday sermon in Madinah. In it he said loudly "Ya Sariyya al-jabal!" which means "O Sariyya, [towards] the mountain!", and then resumed the sermon.
After a month a courier came from the army bearing of good news. He said, "The people of the army heard Hazrat Umar (R.A)'s voice on that day. We all went towards the mountain and Allah made us victorious."
The Victory of Persia and Rome in the Era of Emperor Yazdegerd III
On Yazdegerd III's request to crush the Muslim power. A well coordinated plan was deiced to launch a massive counterattack against Muslims in Iraq and Syria at once so that Muslims, because of the resulted pressure may retreat back to Arabia where they may be dealt in detail later, either by invading it or by economical and trade blockage. Caliph Umar successfully tackled the alliance by putting pressure tactics on Byzantine front and deceptive tactics on Persian front and engaging Yazdegerd III into negotiations, this rendered the alliance a decisive plan would be abortive. The Byzantine forces were decisively defeated in Battle of Yarmouk fought in August 636, Persian army was defeated in Battle of Qadisiyyah three months later in November 636. Muslim victory pertinently ended Byzantine rule in south of Anatolia.
"Siege of Jerusalem (637)"
Jerusalem fall in April 637 after a prolonged siege, Umar personally came to receive the key to the city by the Greek Orthodox patriarch, Sophronius , and invited to offer Muslims prays at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre . Umar chose to pray some distance from the Church, so as not to endanger its status as a Christian temple. Fifty-five years later, the Mosque of Omar was constructed on the site where he prayed. After fall of Jerusalem, Umar permitted Jews to practice their religion freely and live in Jerusalem.
attempt to capture northern Syria in 638, with the aid of Christian Arabs of "Al Jazira, Mesopotamia" Jazira , prompted Muslims to invade Jazira (Mesopotamia) in 638 and captured it securing the eastern flank of Syria from Byzantine attacks in future, soon after occupation of Jazira, Muslim columns marched north in Anatolia, invaded and plundered Byzantine provinces of Armenia , these were however only preemptive attacks on Armenia to eliminate all Byzantine presence north of Syria, Armenia was annexed in 643 During the Muslim conquest of Persia Empire.
Martyrdom of Umar
The Beloved Prophet said, Jibra`eel has informed me that Islam will mourn the demise of Umar.
The outstanding man and caliph of Islam breathed his last on Wednesday, the 26th day of Dhul-Hijjah, that is the day when world lost one of its great leaders and a pioneering architect of civilizational reform.
One of the wicked disbelievers named Abu Lulu Feeroz (a fire worshipper) attacked Hazrat Farooq-e-A’zam with a dagger during Salat-ul-Fajr. He succumbed to the fatal injury and embraced martyrdom on the third day of the attack. At the time of martyrdom his blessed age was 63. Hazrat Suhaib led his funeral Salah. On Sunday, the 1st of Muharram-ul-Haraam, 24 Hijri, this great companion of the Beloved Prophet was buried beside Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddeeq who had been resting beside the Greatest Prophet.
The Last Days of Umar bin al-Khattab
One of the friends of Umar was a certain Mughira bin Shaaba. Umar had appointed him governor, first of Basra, and later of Kufa. A slave of Mughira had a certain grouse against him. He requested Umar's intercession, and upon the latter's refusal, he attacked him, and mortally wounded him.
When he learned that the assassin was a Magian, he said, "Thank God he is not a Muslim." A physician was called. He gave Umar some medicine to drink but all of it came out of the gaping wound in his navel. When the physician noticed this, he told Umar that there was no hope of his recovery, and advised him to make his will since little time was left for him in this world.
Word rapidly spread that the khalifa was mortally wounded, and the news caused much commotion in the city.
Many companions called on Umar to enquire after his health. Some of them suggested that he designate someone as his successor. Umar said:
“If I designate someone as my successor, nothing would be amiss with it since Abu Bakr designated me as his successor, and he was better than me. But if I do not designate anyone as my successor, nothing would be amiss with that either since the Apostle of God did not designate his own successor, and he was better than both of us (Abu Bakr and Umar).”
Ayesha also sent word to Umar urging him to appoint someone as khalifa before his own death, or else, she warned, “anarchy and chaos may spread in the land.” Umar asked Ayesha's messenger to tell her as follows: “I have considered this matter, and I have decided to appoint six men as members of an electoral committee, and to charge them with the task of selecting one out of themselves as khalifa. The six men are: Ali, Uthman, Abdur Rahman bin Auf; Talha, Zubayr and Saad bin Abi Waqqas. The Apostle of God was pleased with all six of them when he left this world, and each of them is qualified to become the khalifa of the Muslims.”
Umar then called all six members of his electoral committee to his home to explain to them what they had to do. When they came, he addressed them as follows:
''Verily, the Apostle of God died, and he was pleased with all six of you. I have, therefore, decided to make it (the selection of khalifa) a matter of consultation among you, so that you may select one of yourselves as khalifa. If four are one side and two on the other, kill the two. And if three are on one side and three on the other, then Abdur Rahman ibn Auf will have the casting vote, and the khalifa will be selected from his party. (Tabari, History)
Umar ordered his son, Abdullah, also to attend the meetings of the newly-formed electoral committee, though not as a candidate for caliphate, and said to him:
“If the members of this committee disagree among themselves, you support those who are in majority. If there is a tie with three on each side, then you support the party of Abdur Rahman bin Auf.”
The body remained intact in the grave
It is stated in the book Sahih Bukhari: Urwah Bin Zubayr reported that when the wall of the Blessed Mausoleum of the Holy Prophe fell down during the reign of caliph Waleed Bin Abdul Malik. People attempted to rebuild the wall. Whilst digging in for the foundation, a foot became visible. Bewildered and surprised people thought that it was the blessed foot of the Noblest Prophet. When nobody could verify it, then Sayyiduna ‘Urwah Bin Zubayr stood and said. By Allah, this is not the blessed foot of the Noblest Prophet rather it is that of Hazrat Umar.
Quotations and Teachings of Hazrat Umar
The person who discloses my faults to me is dearer to me.
even if a lamb would die on the bank of Euphrates River, ‘Umar will be questioned about it on the Day of Resurrection.
1. “The best way to defeat someone is to beat him at politeness.” Umar ibn Al-Khattab.
2. “Do not grieve over what has passed unless it makes you work harder for what is about to come.” Umar ibn Al-Khattab
3. “Whosoever shows you your faults is your friend. Those who pay you lip service in praise are your executioners.” Umar ibn Al-Khattab
5. “The less attachment to the world. The easier your life.” Umar ibn Al-Khattab
8. “The most beloved of people to me is he that points out my flaws to me.” Umar ibn Al-Khattab
9. “Learn the Arabic language; it will sharpen your wisdom.” Umar ibn Al-Khattab
10. “Sit with those who love God, for that enlightens the mind.” Umar ibn Al-Khattab
15. “Sometimes the people with the worst past, create the best future.” Umar ibn Al-Khattab
16. “Get used to a rough life, for luxury does not last forever.” Umar ibn Al-Khattab
18- Patience is the healthiest ingredient of our life.” Umar ibn Al-Khattab
19. “To be alone you avoid bad company. But to have a true friend is better than being alone.” Umar ibn Al-Khattab
20. “Be dignified, honest, and truthful.” Umar ibn Al-Khattab
21. “When one’s intention is sincere, God will suffice his needs, protect him, and guide him in his dealings with the people.” Umar ibn Al-Khattab
25. “The women are not a garment you wear and undress however you like. They are honored and have their rights.” Umar ibn Al-Khattab
26. “God loves moderation and hates extravagance and excess.” Umar ibn Al-Khattab
27. “He who does not live in the way of his beliefs starts to believe in the way he lives.” Umar ibn Al-Khattab
28. “Doing good for a good done to you is simply repayment, whereas doing good for an evil done to you is a tremendous virtue.” Umar ibn Al-Khattab
29. “Don’t forget your own self while preaching to others.” Umar ibn Al-Khattab
35. “May God bless the man who says less and does more.” Umar ibn Al-Khattab.
• (Sahih Bukhari, vol. 2, pp. 525, Hadees 3679)
• (Sunan-ut-Tirmizi, vol. 5, pp. 384, Hadees 3704)
• Dalaail-un-Nubuwwah, Al Bayhaqi, vol. 6, pp. 370.
• Ar-Riyad-un Nadarah fi Manaqib Al-Asharah, vol. 1, pp. 285, 408, 418.
• Tareekh-ul Khulafa, pp. 108.
• Tareekh Damishq, Ibn ‘Asakir, vol. 45, pp. 450
• Tafseer Kabeer, vol. 7, pp. 433)
• Kanz-ul-Iman (Translation of Quran), Part 16, Surah Taahaa, verse 132)
• (Manaqib ‘Umar Bin Al-Khattab, Ibn Al-Jawzi, pp. 154)
• (At-Tabqat Ibn Sa’d, vol. 3, pp. 209)
• (Kanz-ul-‘Ummal, vol. 5, pp. 303, Raqm 14303)
• (Tabqat-ush-Shafi’iyyah Al-Kubra lis-Subki, vol. 2, pp. 324)
• (Majma-uz-Zawaid, vol. 9, pp. 77, Hadees 14461)
• (Jam’-ul-Jawami’ lis-Suyuti, vol. 4, pp. 368, Hadees 12556)
• (Hilyat-ul-Awliya, vol. 2, pp. 175
• (Kitab-ul-Kaba`ir, pp. 22)