The water plays an extraordinary important role in the economy and in the life of all countries. It is of vigorous importance for the existence of people, animals and vegetation. The settling and calm down of people in different regions of earth has always been closely dependent on the potentials for water supply parallel to those providing with food, shelter and heat. The increase in the population, development, enhancement, augmentation, upgrading and enrichment of mankind in number of places has reached a level at which the water supply needed for the population, industry, irrigation and production of electric power has been brought to a decisive point. Only one-fifth of the fresh water which is available is suitable for human consumption.
There is rough distribution of water regarding space, time and quality. That is why false redistribution of water is needed by undertaking luxurious engineering in order to acquire water for given place in a defined quantity and quality.
Dams are vital and vigorous in every country, not just to aid in the hydroelectricity department and agriculture but also for the day to day human uses and routines as well. In spite of spending heaps on growth of projects like metro bus and green line, the country still pauses behind in guaranteeing the most basic human need i.e. water. There aren’t enough dams in Pakistan; in fact the only major dams built were only Mangla and Tarbela. Meanwhile, no focus has been given to this area despite the fact that informations are nothing but frightening. Allowing to the new evidences and records, the development of hydropower projects is crucial in order to encounter the increasing demand. Because of the increasing population, the per capita water obtainable is lessening and the natural process of sedimentation is further worsening the situation.
Dam is a synthetic barrier assembled to contain flow of water built across a river, lake, sea forming a reservoir, basin and tank behind it. They are mostly created from earth, natural materials, concrete & rocks. So it is basically a kind of wall which are constructed to stop or regulate the flow of water from rivers. This process aids in storage and filling of water, the water which is stored or filled with the help of dams can be used for many drives. Pakistan is a country where rainfall is ambiguous therefore dams play very vital role in saving of water.
After the establishment of Pakistan, Canal water is argument was appeared between Pakistan and India and for the settlement of this argument Indus Basin Treaty was signed. After this agreement Pakistan created many barrages, link canals and dams to make the continuous supply of water to meet country’s requirements. Pakistan is an agricultural country and its economy depends upon agriculture. A lot of water is acquired for growing the crops, hence dams are a huge source of the supply of water for agriculture.
The dams are also a source of numerous-purpose projects because the water is stored in dams has potential energy which can be transformed into other kinds of energy which is used for different drives. Hydroelectricity which is formed by water is generated from the water which has been stored in dams. Many hydel power projects in Pakistan are working at the places where dams have been formed.
The drinking water is supplied to different areas and zones of Karachi from Hub Dam. Tarbela dam on river Indus and Mangla dam on river Jhelum are playing an important and crucial role in supplying water to agricultural grounds. These dams are also helpful in producing electricity. The construction of Kala-Bagh dam has been suspended by the political argument among the provinces of Pakistan. It is the need of time that small dams should be created at various places and this storage could be used for agriculture and for the production and creation of power resources without any obstacles. Since Pakistan has also started working on the construction of Mohmand and Diamer Bhasha Dam. Diamer Bhasha Dam is expected to generate 4500 MW of electricity and has a storage capacity of 8.1 MAF. Dams are thought to be the only solution to this and it is high time that concerned authorities recognize the sensitivity of this condition and take control as soon as possible.