6th Hijrah: Sariyyah Muhammad bin Maslamah: Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) sent thirty Sahaabah (RA) towards Qurtaa, under the leadership of Sayyiduna Muhammad bin Maslamah. The chief of Banu Hanifah, Thumamah bin Uthaal (RA) was arrested. Latter he was released with the order of the Prophet (SAWS). Following release, he took bath and embraced Islam in Masjid Nabawi. The Battle of Bani Lahyaan: The Prophet (SAWS) wanted to take revenge of the Martyrs of Rajee’, Khubaib, Aasim (RA) etc. but when the Prophet (SAWS) reached, they ran away. He (SAWS) and Sahabah came back after two days, without any fight. The battle of De Qarad (Qarad: Name of a spring in Ghtfaan): Abdur Rahman bin Oyainah, in the company of 40 riders, raided the pasture and confiscated the camels of the Prophet (SAWS) killing the son of Abu Zar (RA), caretaker of the camels. Hence, this battle occurred. The Prophet (SAWS) and the Sahabah followed them. Two of them were killed and remaining ran away. Sariyyah Okashan bin Muhsin, Sariyyah Muhammad bin Maslamah, Sariyyah Abu Obaidah, Sariyyah Jamoom, Sariyyah Aeis, Sariyyah Tarif, Sariyyah Hasma, Sariyyah Waadil Qura, Sariyyah Domatul Jandal, Sariyyah Fidak, Sariyyah Umme Qirfah, Sariyyah Abdullah bin Atik, Sariyyah Abdullah bin Rawaha and Sariyyah Kazr bin Jabir occurred. Umratul Hudaibiyyah and later the treaty of Hudaibiyyah took place. Following the treaty of Hudaibiyyah, the Prophet (SAWS) felt ease and started sending the letter to non-Muslim rulers of the world; like Qaisar of Rome through Dahya Kalabi, Kisra of Iran through Abdulllah bin Huzafah Sahmi (RA), As’hamah, the king of Ethiopia (Najashi) through Amr bin Umaiyyah (RA), Muqauqis, the King of Egypt through Hatib bin Abi Balta’ah, Munzir bin Sawaa, the king of Bahrain through Alaa bin Hazrami (RA), (Julandi and his sons,) Jaifar and Abd, Jaifar was the king of Oman, through Amr bin A’as (RA) (8th Hijrah), Hauzah bin Ali, the chief of Yamamah through Saleet bin Amr (RA), Harith Ghassani, the Ameer of Damascus through Shuja’ bin Wahab (RA), wherein he invited them towards Islam. Sayyiduna Ashamah (RA) embraced Islam and died in 9th Hijrah. The Prophet (SAWS) offered his Janazah Salaah. Munzir, the king of Bahrain also embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 2/321-397)
7th Hijrah: Khaibar Victory: With commandment of Allah, the Almighty, the Prophet (SAWS) left for Khaibar in the company of 1,600 Sahabah (RA) against the rebellious Jews who had provoked and supported the Qureish in the battle of Trench. The first and foremost, the Na’aim Fort was conquered. Then Qamoos Fort was conquered at the hands of Ali (RA) following the struggle of 20 days. Then Sa’ab bin Mua’adh fort was conquered. Then Qullah Fort was conquered following the big struggle. At this point, almost all forts were conquered except two forts: Wateeh and Salalim. The fort was being conquered one after another, until the Jews requested to let them go in exile and it was granted. Victory of Fidak: When the dwellers of Fidak learnt about Khaibar’s difficult situation, they also requested to let them go in exile, it was also accepted. The Prophet (SAWS) made Nikaah with Safiyyah (RA). Zainab bint Harith gifted the Prophet (SAWS) a roasted poisoned goat. The Prophet (SAWS) was informed. He stopped eating and stopped his friends too. On the request from the Jews, latter the deal was made on share-cropping contract on the basis of dividing the yield into halves. Muta’h was prohibited. Some Immigrants to Ethiopia came back the day Khaibar was conquered. Waadi Al-Quraa was conquered after four days detention. The Prophet (SAWS) performed Umrah in the company of 2000 companions. Wedding of the Prophet (SASWS) with Maimunah bint Harith was made. Sariyyah Akram bin Abil Awjaa took place. Polytheists of Makkah broke treaty.
(Seerate Mustafa 2/400-434)
8th Hijrah: Sayyidna Khalid bin Waleed, Uthman bin Talha and Amr bin Aas (RA) embraced Islam. The battle of Mauta: The Prophet (SAWS) sent Haarith bin Umair with a letter to Sharahbeel, the Ameer of Syria. When he had reached in Mauta, a place in Syria, Sharahbeel made him killed. This was why, the Prophet (SAWS) sent three thousand Sahabah. The Sahabah (RA) invited them to Islam firstly, but they didn’t accept Islam until the group of three thousand Muslims started fighting against 2 hundred thousand non-Muslim army. One after another, three Commanders in Chief: Zaid bin Haritha, Jafar bin Abi Talib and Abdullah bin Rawaha, along with other nine Sahabah (RA) got martyred. At the end, the battle was won under the leadership of Khalid bin Waleed (RA) and the warriors were welcomed by the Prophet (SAWS) and other Muslims on return near Madinah. Sariyyah Amr bin Aas: The Prophet (SAWS) came to know that the people of Qadha’ah tribe want attacking Madinah. The Prophet (SAWS), therefore, sent a Sariyyah towards Datus Salaasil. They attacked on Qadha’ah tribe. The people of the tribe ran away and it was won easily. A group of army was sent towards Seiful Bahr to fight against Juhainah tribe under the leadership of Abu Obaidah bin Jarrah. (Seerate Mustafa 2/434-52) The Delegation of Asharee Tribe from Yemen came to visit the Prophet (SAWS) (Seerate Mustafa 3/117-18)
The victory of Makkah: In accordance with the treaty of Hudaibiyyah, the other tribes had choice to ally with any group. Banu Bakr, therefore, allied itself with the Qureish and Banu Khuza’ah allied itself with the Rasoolullah (SAWS). Once the Banu Nafathah from the Banu Bakr, with the support of the Qureish, attacked on Banu Khuza’ah and killed some people. This was clear breach of the agreement. Then the Prophet (SAWS) sent a message to the Qureish asking them to pay blood-money to Khuza’ah, to separate Banu Nafatha from the agreement or end the Treaty of Hudaibiyyah. They preferred to break the treaty. Hence, the Prophet (SAWS) left for Makkah on 10th Ramadhan, in the company of 10 thousand Sahabah. Before entering Makkah, the Prophet (SAWS) had announced about Makkah people that those who entered in the Holy Ka’abah are safe, those who entered in Abu Sufyan’s home are secured and those who closed the doors of their homes are protected. This news was publicized by Sufyan (RA) in Makkah. The people followed it. Two Muslims got martyred and almost 12/13 polytheists were killed. Makkah was conquered easily. After the victory, Rasulullah (SAWS) entered Majid Haraam and made Tawaaf of Holy Ka’abah. Sayyiduna Abbas and Sayyiduna Abu Sufyan embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 3/1-34) The Battles of Hunain, Auwtaas and Taaif occurred. Sayyiduna Ibrahim was born to the Prophet (SAWS) and passed away in the same year. (Seerate Mustafa 3/62-74)
9th Hijrah: Sariyyah Oyainah towards Banu Tameem: Rasulullah (SAWS) sent Bashr bin Sufyan (RA) to collect Zakaah (Alms). All the people got ready to pay it, but Banu Tamim refused, rather got ready to fight. On this, Rasulullah (SAWS) sent a Sariyyah under the leadership of Oyainah (RA). They raided in the night and 11 men, 21 women and 30 children were arrested. Latter, they embraced Islam and all the arrested people were released. Sariyyah Abdullah bin Awjsah was sent with the letter of the Prophet (SAWS) to invite Bani Amr bin Hartha to Islam, but they refused. Sariyyah Qutbah bin Aamir was sent to Khath’am. The fight took place and the Khath’am was defeated. Sariyyah Zahhak bin Sufyan was sent to invite Banu Kilaab towards Islam. They refused to embrace Islam and started insulting and got ready to fight. When the fight started the Banu Kilaab was defeated. Renowned poet of Arabic language, Ka’ab bin Zuhair (RA), who had run away from Makkah on the Victory day, embraced Islam arriving in Madinah. (Seerate Mustafa 3/79-89)
The Battle of Tabook: Heracles, the King of Rome prepared 40 thousands army and wanted to attack on Madinah. When the Prophet (SAWS) came to know it, he (SAWS) commanded his companions to get ready at once and fight against them at the boarder of Tabook. The economic condition of the Muslims was not good, so the Sahabah started donating whatever they can manage. Uthman (RA) donated 300 camels and one thousand Danaanir. The prophet (SAWS) left for Tabook with Sahabah and Muhammad bin Muslamah (RA) was deputed charge of Madinah. The prophet (SAWS) stayed in Tabook for 20 days; but the fight didn’t take place. Some tribes themselves came and agreed upon paying Jizyah (Tax). Then the Prophet (SAWS) sent 420 Muslims under the leadership of Khalid bin Waleed (RA) towards Akeedar, the ruler of Domatul Jandal from Heracles. He was arrested and brought to Rasulullah (SAWS). A deal was made on paying 2000 camels, 800 horses, 400 armors and 400 spares. Hajj was made Fardh. A good number of people went for Hajj and Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was made Ameerul Hajj. The Najashi passed away and his Salatul Janazah was offered by the Prophet (SAWS). Riba (usury) was prohibited. (Seerate Mustafa 3/90-105) Thaqeef delegation visited the Prophet (SAWS). (3/110) Those who didn’t accept Islam, Jizyah was imposed on them. Delegation of Bani Hanifah came. Musailam Kazzab was also a member of this delegation. He insisted to be nominated. The Prophet (SAWS) refused and they went back. (3/114-115) When the Prophet (SAWS) came back from Tabook, a delegation of Hamdan from Yemen came to visit the Prophet (SAWS), while already they had accepted Islam at the hands of Sayyiduna Ali (RA) (3/120) A delegation of Christian of Najran from Yemen came to Madinah, but they didn’t accept Islam and got ready to pay Jizyah. (3/121) A delegation of Bani Asad visited the Prophet (SAWS) and embraced Islam with the guidance of the Almighty Allah. (3/133) In brief, many delegations, like: delegation Ghudara, delegation of Baliyy and delegation of Bani Murrah etc. visited the prophet (SAWS) and embraced Islam (Seerate Mustafa 3/134-35)
10th Hijrah: Several delegations, which started from 8th Hijrah, from different tribes visited the Prophet (SAWS). Amongst them were the delegation of Hawaazin, consisting 14 people, the delegation of Bani Aamir bin Sa’sa’ah and delegation’s two members: Aamir bin Tufail and Arbad bin Qeis talked in very bad manner. They died also in bad manner without embracing Islam, delegation of Abdul Qeis from Bahrain also visited the Prophet (SAWS) and embraced Islam, a delegation of Tai arrived and embraced Islam. Delegation of Kindah from Yemen arrived to visit the Prophet (SAWS). A delegation Azad Tribe consisting 15 people came and embraced Islam. The Prophet (SASW) sent Khalid bin Waleed (RA) to Banu Harith, a tribe of Najran to preach Islam. They accepted Islam at once and latter a delegation of the said tribe, in the company of Khalid bin Waleed (RA), came to visit the Prophet (SAWS). A delegation of Bahra’a from Yemen came to Madinah and stayed at the home of Sayyiduna Miqdad (RA) and after learning the Masa’il and rulings of Islam went back. Briefly, many delegations, like: Delegation of Khaulan from Yemen, delegation of Muhaarib, Delegation of Ghassan and the delegation of Salaamaan etc. visited the Prophet (SASWS) and embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 3/107-137)
Before Hijrah, the Prophet (SAWS) performed two or so Hajjs. But after Hijrah, the Prophet (SAWS) performed the first and last Hajj in the 10th Hijrah which is called Farewell Hajj (Hajjatul Wada’). He (SAWS) left for Makkah on 25th Dul-Qaadah and reached on 4th Dul-Hijjah. Almost 114,000 people performed Hajj in the company of Rasulullah (SAWS). The Prophet (SAWS) gave his last Sermon, which includes the important issues along with several points protecting the Human Rights.
Few Sentences from his Farewell Hajj’s Sermon: “O people, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take interest; therefore, all interest obligations shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer inequity. Allah has judged that there shall be no interest and that all interest due to Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib shall henceforth be waived.” (Seerate Mustafa 3/147-48)
11th Hijrah: The delegation of Nakha’ visited the prophet (SAWS) and embraced Islam. (3/140) The Prophet (SAWS) sent the last Sariyyah under the leadership of Usamah bin Zaid towards Romans on Monday, 26th Safar. The Prophet (SAWS) fell sick on Wednesday. One Thursday he (SAWS) fell seriously sick. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (RA) was selected for leading Salaah. One Monday (12th Rabiul Awwal), the Prophet (SAWS) passed away and was buried in the home of Aaisha (RA) where he (SAWS) passed away. (Seerate Mustafa 3/152-53)
While the Prophet (SAWS) was sick, he came to know that while on the one hand Aswad Anasi, Musailmah Kadhdhaab and Tulaiha Asadi had claimed Prophethood falsely, some Muslims had forsaken Islam on the other. Rasulullah (SAWS), therefore, sent a Sariyyah to follow Aswad Anasi and he was killed just a day before his sad demise. May Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him! (Seeratul Mustafa 3/156)
*Head Islamic Department, Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia