Dr. Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal was born on November 9, 1877. He was one of the most important poets of the twentieth century, a writer, a lawyer, a politician, a Muslim Sufi and a prominent figure in the Tehreek-e-Pakistan. Urdu and Persian used to be poetry and this is the main reason for this. The main trend in poetry was towards Sufism and the Ummah of Islam. He also wrote a prose book in English called "The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam." Allama Iqbal is considered a modern Sufi. His most notable achievement as a politician is the formation of the ideological Pakistan, which he presented while presiding over a meeting of the Muslim League in Allahabad in 1930. This view later became the basis for the establishment of Pakistan. That is why Allama Iqbal is considered the ideological father of Pakistan. Although he did not see the establishment of this new country with his own eyes, he has the status of a national poet of Pakistan.
Birth and Early Life:
Allama Iqbal was born in Sialkot on November 9, 1877 to the home of Sh. Noor Muhammad. The parents were named Muhammad Iqbal. Iqbal's ancestors after embraced Islam migrating from Kashmir to Sialkot in the late eighteenth century or early nineteenth century and settled in Mohallah Khaytian.
Sheikh Noor Muhammad was a man of integrity. Religious education was very important for his son. Sialkot was often a friendly event with local scholars. Initially Iqbal took him to Maulana Ghulam Hassan, who taught in the mosque of Mohallah Shawla. Sheikh Noor Muhammad had to come there. From here Iqbal's education began. The custom started with the Quran. For almost a year, it continued that Maulana Syed Mir Hassan, a renowned scholar of the city, came out. One child sat and saw that the first light of glory and light was shining. Asked who has a baby When he found out, he got up and walked towards Sheikh Noor Muhammad. The two were intimately familiar with each other. Maulana stressed that you should not restrict your son to the madrassa. For this, modern education is also very important. He expressed his desire that Iqbal should be given training. For some days, Sheikh Noor Muhammad stayed behind, but when the insistence on the other side increased, Iqbal was handed over to Mir Hassan. His school was located in Kocha Mir Hassamuddin, near the house of Sheikh Noor Muhammad. Here Iqbal started reading Urdu, Persian and Arabic literature. Three years have passed. In the meantime, Syed Mir Hassan started teaching him at the Scotch Mission School. Iqbal also entered there, but the old routine remained in its place. When Iqbal came from school, he would present before the teacher. Mir Hassan was a monument to the great teachers for whom life had only one purpose, reading and teaching. Syed Mir Hassan was very fan of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and considered Aligarh movement is very useful for Muslims.
Under his influence, Iqbal also developed a love for Sir Syed Ahmad Khan which, despite some differences, lasted till the end. The goodwill of the Muslims was the object of Iqbal's house, but Mir Hassan's training gave this spirit an intellectual and practical direction. Iqbal was far ahead of his peers in understanding and intelligence. At the age of sixteen, Iqbal passed the matriculation exam with first Division and received medals and scholarships. Intermediate classes were also started at Scotch Mission School so Iqbal didn't have to go anywhere for the FA, he stayed there.
On 6 May 1893 Iqbal matriculated and in 1895 Iqbal did his FA and came to Lahore for further education. Here he enrolled in a BA class at Government College and started living in a hostel. Choose English, Philosophy and Arabic articles for yourself. He taught English and Philosophy at Government College and went to the Oriental College to study Arabic, where Maulana Faizul Hassan Saharanpuri was such an outstanding teacher. At that time Oriental College was located in a part of the Government College building, and the two colleges continued to collaborate and collaborate on certain subjects. In 1898 Iqbal passed his BA and enrolled in MA (Philosophy).Here Iqbal also met with Professor TW Arnold's, Who set the final point of Iqbal's intellectual and intellectual life.
Examined for MA in March 1899 and came first across Punjab. During this time, poetry continued to flow, but did not go to the poets. One evening in November 1899, some unsuspecting classmates dragged him to a concert at the Hakim Aminuddin's house. The large coined teachers, including a large number of pupils, participated. There was also a crowd of listeners.
After passing his MA, Iqbal was appointed as a Macleod Arabian Reader at Oriental College on May 13, 1899. That same year, Arnold was temporarily appointed acting principal of the college. Iqbal stayed at Oriental College for about four years. However, he took six months leave in the middle and taught English at Government College. Iqbal wanted to go to Canada or the United States for higher education, but at the instance of Arnold chose England and Germany for this purpose. When Arnold returned to England in 1904, Iqbal found his distance tremendous.
In his four-year tenure at Oriental College, Iqbal summarized Stubbs' "Early Pledges" and Walker's "Political Economy" in Urdu. He wrote a short book in the Urdu language called "Ilm-ul-Aqtasaad" which was published in 1904. It is one of the first books on Urdu in its subject.
After serving as an Arab Reader at Oriental College, Iqbal was appointed to the Government College in 1903 as an Assistant Professor of English. He later moved on to the field of philosophy. He taught there until he took a three-year leave to go to Europe on October 1, 1905.
Higher Education and Travel To Europe:
On December 25, 1905, Allama Iqbal moved to England for higher education and enrolled at Cambridge University Trinity College as a research scholar at the college so he was not allowed to stay in a hostel like ordinary students. Arranged to stay out of college. It was a little over a month ago that Lincoln had enlisted him for a barrister. And guidance from extracurricular likes Professor Brown. Later Iqbal moved to Germany where he received a PhD in Philosophy from the University of Munich.
Sir Abdul Qadir was also here. Cambridge teachers at the same time included Whitehead, Meg Tiggert, Ward, Brown and Nicholson, among such rare jobs and city-based figures. Iqbal had a close relationship with Meg Tigert and Nicholson, but with Nicholson, an equal friendship and intimacy ensued. Maggart taught the philosophy of Kant and Hegel at Trinity College. He himself was one of the great philosophers of England. Brown and Nicholson were experts in Arabic and Persian. Later, Nicholson also translated an English translation of Iqbal's Persian poem "Israr e Khudi" which, although Iqbal did not like it at all, caused a partial introduction to Iqbal's name and work in the poetic and intellectual circles of English-speaking Europe. Sure happened. After coming from England, Iqbal's correspondence with MagTaggert and Nicholson continued.
Arnold, who was not in Cambridge, taught Arabic at London University, but Iqbal used to visit him regularly. In each case, he would have taken any step by taking his advice. At the request of Prof: Arnold Iqbal got admission at the University of Munich for Phd. After receiving his BA from Cambridge in July 1907, he moved to Heidel Bergchild to learn the German language and prepare for the oral examination of his research dissertation at the University of Munich in the same language.
He returned to London upon receiving his doctorate. Started preparing for the final bar exam After a few months all the exams were completed. July 1908 concludes and successfully declared. After this no longer stayed in England, he returned home.
During his stay in London, Iqbal also started a series of lectures on various topics, such as Islamic mysticism, the influence of Muslims on civilized Europe, Islamic democracy, Islam and humanity, etc. Unfortunately, none of them are recorded. Once Arnold went on a long vacation, Iqbal was appointed professor of Arabic at London University for a few months. In July 1908 he left for homeland. Arriving from Bombay, he arrived in Delhi on the night of July 25, 1908.
Teaching, advocacy and social services
Initially, after completing his MA, he took up teaching duties at Oriental College Lahore. Along with advocacy, he continued to do poetry and took active part in political movements. In 1922, the then Govt. gave him address of Sir.
Iqbal arrived in Lahore in August 1908. One and half months later, Iqbal started advocacy in Chief Court Punjab. There were only a few days in this profession that M.A.O College Aligarh offered him for Philosophy and History Professor at Government College Lahore, but Iqbal found himself a good advocate and apologized to both institutions. However, later on May 10, 1910, at the request and insistence of the Punjab government, he temporarily started teaching philosophy at Lahore, but continued to advocacy along with. At the same time, relationships with several organizations and associations were created by Iqbal.
On March 2, 1910, he was nominated a Fellow of the University of the Punjab. Together with Lala Ram Prasad, Professor History, Government College Lahore, he has compiled a curriculum book "History of India" which came out in 1913. He has been a member of the Oriental and Arts Faculty, Senate and Syndicate at various times in the years ahead. In 1919 the Dean of the Oriental Faculty was created. In 1923 the membership of the academic council of the university was obtained, in the same year the professorship committee was also taken. He resigned from the Academic Council after being forced out of his numerous engagements, but the university's Vice-Chancellor, Sarjan Maynard, refused to let him go. It was insisted on his behalf that he withdrew his resignation. During this time, he was also a member of the Punjab Text Book Committee. A Persian textbook for matriculation students, called 'Aina e Ajam', published in 1927. Therefore, Iqbal was practically associated with the University of Punjab till 1932.
On April 13, 1919, a protest rally was held at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar city. In the meantime, General Dyer surrounded the people indiscriminately, firing indiscriminately and killing hundreds. Although Iqbal had taken his place in the house at the time, the threat of the accident also reached his heart. He said these words in memory of the dead people:
ہر زائرِ چمن سے یہ کہتی ہے خاکِ پاک
غافل نہ رہ جہان میں گردوں کی چال سے
سینچا گیا ہے خونِ شہیداں سے اس کا تخم
تو آنسوؤں کا بخل نہ کر اس نہال سے
The year 1930 is a landmark in both Pakistan and Iqbal. The annual meeting of the All India Muslim League was held in the city of Allahabad on the 29th of December. Quaid-e-Azam traveled to London to attend the first round table conference. According to Quaid e Azam advice, the meeting was to be chaired by Iqbal. This is where he presided over the historic sermon known as Khutba ala-Abad. The sermon for the first time presented a concrete and unambiguous outline of an independent Muslim state within India.
The British government also invited Iqbal to the second round table conference. He left Lahore on September 8, 1931 to go to London. Arrived in Delhi the next morning. Thousands of people were welcome to the station's platform.
Arrived at Bombay on September 10, 1931. The next day they sailed for England by ship and arrived in London on September 27. By the way, Iqbal attended the Second Round Table Conference, but his academic and literary reputation in England, which grew far beyond political fame, divided his engagement into two parts. From the very beginning of the conference some artifacts began to emerge that Iqbal had become bad at heart.
At the end of 1932, the third round table conference was organized by the British Government in London. Iqbal was also invited this time. On 17 October 1932 he left for England and stayed there until December 30th. Iqbal then took no interest in the conference, as most of the discussions raised were related to the federation, which Iqbal had no stake in. They were convinced of the sovereignty of the provinces within India in which there was no such thing as a central government, but the provinces were directly linked to the minister sitting in London.
Muslim political parties in the subcontinent were in deep chaos and defiance. My own voice was going. The issue of the national future of the Muslims was practically forgotten. Quaid-e-Azam went to London in frustration, all of which remained a ploy to watch and grieve by Iqbal, but the power of the Muslims was accepted by God and Quaid-e-Azam returned to India on the insistence of Iqbal and other sincere people and on March 4, 1934 and elected as president of the Muslim league.
On May 6, 1936, "Javed Manzil" visited Quaid-e-Azam. You invited Iqbal to become a member of the Central Parliamentary Board of the Muslim League, which Iqbal accepted, despite his serious illness.
On May 12, Iqbal was re-elected president of the Punjab Muslim League. With your education and the tired efforts of Quaid-e-Azam, the country was liberated and Pakistan came into existence.
Iqbal and Romi:
Allama Iqbal used to refer to Maulana Rumi as his spiritual teacher and called him Pir Romi.
At the behest of Iqbal, his bed was taken from the round room to his bedroom. They drank a glass of fruit salt. It was a few minutes before five in the morning. All were thinking that night of worry was over. Dr Abdul Qayyum and Mian Muhammad Shafi arrived at a nearby mosque to offer pray in the morning and only Ali Bakhsh was left with Iqbal. In the meantime, suddenly Iqbal laid his hands on his heart and the word "Hi" came out of his mouth. Ali Bakhsh immediately stepped forward and rested them in his arms. He said: there is severe pain in the heart and before Ali Bakhsh could do anything, he said "Allah" and his head fell to one side.
On April 21, 1938, at about five o'clock and fourteen minutes in the morning, Iqbal handed over his life in the lap of his employee Ali Bakhsh. After sunrise, when Rakim and Munera stood at the doorstep of their door, scared to look inside, there was no one in the room. The windows were open and he lay straight on the bed. He was covered with white linen up to the neck, which was occasionally shaken by the breeze. His eyes were closed, his face was on the Qibla. The mustache had turned white and there was a slight ink in the last dye applied on the edges of the head.
To Be Continued......................