CORONA-VIRUSES; HISTORY, CAUSES, SYMPTOM, TREATMENT, VACCINE, PRECAUTION, THREATS

(Waqar Hussain, Lahore)

Corona virus emerged in Wuhan city of China in December 2019 and within a month, it spread profusely, infecting about three thousands people and killing 80.The plight of 110 million population of Wuhan is deplorable where hospital are teeming with patients and medical stores have run short of medicine,death is reigning and panic has gripped the entire area.People have stored food items and hidden in their homes.Apart from China, the Corona virus has crossed the boundaries and has entered in 20 countries.By each passing day, Corona fever is becoming pandemic and its fear is hanging like sword of Damocles over the entire global population.As there is no vaccine available to combat the Corona virus so there is Hobson's choice to keep away from it and this is only possible by knowing the details of Corona virus and precautionary measures.

Corona fever is caused by a group of corona virus of family Coronaviridae.It cause disease in bird, mammals, and man. In human, corona virus causes respiratory infection often mild and rarely acute and lethal.Corona is a Latin word meaning crown, when virus is observed under electron microscope; a fringe of large bulbous surface projection create an image of royal crown. Corona-viruses were first discovered in 1960s in chicken and two type of virus in human; suffering from influenza.There are many types of viruses that have been identified so far ; For example, SARS.CoV in 2003; HCoV NL63 in 2004; HKU1 in 2005; MERS-CoV in 2012 and 2019 nCoV in 2019. Most causes respiratory track infection.

In recent Corona virus crisis, a novel strain of Corona-virus 2019 nCoV was found in Wuhan, Hubei Province of China. Wuhan is a city with 110 million population. So far 25 death have been reported and 547 confirmed cases.National Health Commission daily report of 26th, Janauary says 2744 cases and 80 deaths. Wuhan virus has 70% genetic similarity with SARC-CoV. It is suspected that this virus originated from snakes or bat.Out of the first 41 people infected; two -third had link with Huanan Seafood whole sale market , which also sold live animals. It shoes that virus probably transmitted from animals.Other countries that have confirmed cases are: Thailand, South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Macau, Hong Kong , United States, Singapore, France, Nepal, Sri lanka, Cambodia,Australia, Malaysia, Canada,UK( WHO did not confirm it)

Virus enter cell and virus particle is uncoated and RNA genome enter cytoplasm. Genome attaches to ribosome for translation. RNA genome make new copies using host cell machinery,thus increase in number.Its incubation period is for 2-14 days.
There are two test to identity corona virus; first one is PCR Nucleic Acid Testing in which DNA of virus is detected. Second is "crown morphology" of corona virus is seen through Electron Microscope.The Minister of state for Health Zafar Mirza admitted that we have not enough facilities to identify and screen corona virus.So, we must be extra careful and should adopt measures to keep it at a bay.

As far as ts treatment is concerned ,no vaccine is available so far . Suspected person is advised to wear mask. US CDC prescribed that patient should take flue medication, drink fluid and take rest.When its vaccine will come in market?This questions peeps in every mind. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH (NIH) is hooping for human trial of medicine by April 2020. Chinese Centre of Disease Control and Prevention CCDC has started developing vaccine against noval Coronovirus. Coalition of Epidemic Preparedness Innovation ( CEPI) is funding three vaccine projects and hope to have a vaccine by jun 2020.So, at this stage, "precaution" is the best "vaccine"..

Its symptom includes;Fever, coughing, breathing difficulty,in sum, flu like manifestation.Precautions are the more viable and practical solution to keep safe.It incledes:Regular hand washing; covering mouth and nose as it is air born disease ( spread by air); avoid close contact with person showing respiratory illness as it is contagious disease( spread by touch); doctor should use bunny suit (protective clothing from head to toe);keep away from pet animals; cook food completely especially meat or eat fruit and vegetables; avoid touching eye,nose or face of anyone; put vicks or oil in nose and try to breath through nose;keep moistened throat; and avoid catching flue.

Another question that comes in mind is about its mortality rate? China say 4% patient dies; WHO say 25% get serious illness; and most of the neutral observers have calculated mortality rate of 10%.It means one out of ten kick the bucket and nine get well.

There is a looming threat about its colossal damage.Dr Sallaudin Qadri said that any virus can become pandemic if four factors are available.If it is a new type of virus; it can be transmitted from animal to human; human body can develop a disease and virus can spread from human to human. Unfortunately, all four factor are there.So, the world community should fight it on war footing.

Pakistan is said to have five cases; three(Chines) in Services Hospital Lahore and two in Nishtar Hospital Multan. But these cases are not officially confirmed.But it is imminent need of the time to first screen the people coming from china from all corridors; air port, sea port and land route. Second, a massive awareness campaign is to be launched in print,electronic media and social media.Third if there is any confirmed case, he should be kept in quarantine. But one fact should be kept in mind, it is winter season and one often gets flue but every person getting cold should not be labelled with Corona virus before proper investigation.As anxiety of disease worsen the malady many fold. There is formula in medicine; two and two is not four, it is twenty two.It means if one get sick and then get anxious about it, the disease will not be in tune of 4 but it will increase to 22.Further there is maxim: 'cat has nine lives" meaning it is difficult to kill a cat, being tough.But in another adage, it is said:" care killed a cat" . It shows how dangerous it is anxiety that it killed sturdy nine lives having cat.So avoiding worry and anxiety is also a "treatment.

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