Introducation To Biology

(Nimii, Rahim Yar Khan)

Biology is the branch of science that concern with the study of living things or life. It is derived from two Green words Bios means "LIFE" and Logos means "Study". Biology is a very wide-based subject that deals with the effect of living and non-living on living things in any way. It gives us pieces of information about every aspect of life. After lots of research, many branches have emerged from biology. It also involves the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms and the diversity of life on Earth. Biology describes the Cell which is a structural and functional unit of life, Gene basic unit of heredity.

Biology is a science concern with the study of living things and how they behave and react with one another. Life, for the biologist, is a set of characteristics. Based on different characters, they differentiate between the organisms. In biology, every aspect of living things is studied. But still, life is too complicated to defined properly.

Characteristics of Living Things:
Living things are highly organized, they can grow in size, they are made up of small units known as cells, they can produce energy and utilize it for their uses, they can prepare their own food, they can reproduce, some living things can move freely like animals but some are stuck on their places like plants, they maintain their internal environment against external environment, they are made up of some specific chemicals, all organism has their limited life spans. Organisms are of different types they are characterized as animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, viruses, etc. Higher animals depend on others for their food. They also contain genetic programs of their characteristics. Biologically Organisms are complex structural. They can carry out the number of processes inside the body as well as outside. They interact with one another for many purposes. They can breed and produces offsprings.

Living and Non-Living Things:
Living Things: is alive, they can move, they can breathe, they can reproduce new organisms, they can move, they are not immortal have specific life to span, they required nutrients for survival.g. animals, plants, bacteria. On the other hand non-living do not have such characteristics they are dead, not alive, they do not move, they do not reproduce, respired, they do not grow in size e.g. plastic, wood, cotton, etc

Levels of Biology:
1. Atomic and Subatomic Level
2. Molecular Level
3. Organelles and Cell
4. Tissue Level
5. Organ and System
Branches of Biology:
1. Molecular Biology
2. Environmental Biology
3. Microbiology
4. Freshwater Biology
5. Marine Biology
6. Parasitology
7. Human Biology
8. Social Biology
9. Biotechnology
10. Biochemistry
11. Biophysics
12. Astrobiology
13. Cell Biology
Basic Principles of Biology:
1. Cell Theory
2. Gene Theory
3. Evolution
4. Thermodynamic
5. Hemostasis

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