Arbaz Hassan, Department of
Plant Breeding and Genetics, UAF
In Pakistan cotton ranks 2nd important crop after wheat in terms of area and
value added. In 1991 Pakistan ranked 3rd globally after china and US in
production and stood first in export. Cotton is used as fiber as well as an oil
seed crop. Pakistan can not only high amount earn foreign exchange but also can
extract oil to lessen the burden to import of edible oil by increasing it
production provide less problematic fields to cotton.
In Pakistancotton faced many issues some related to field and the other to
market. The year2015 production of cotton decreased from 10.6 million bales to 7
million bales. In 2016 yield increased but not up to the marki.e 8.25 million
bales which is still not satisfactory. The major problems were climate change
insect pests (pink bollworm), competition with major crops like wheat and other
cash crops, low market price, lack of incentive to farmers. These was some major
reasons but behind the curtain some of the problems at farmer level also exist
like the high price and less availability of fertilizers and pesticides. Farmer
is not willing to grow a crop which has high input but lower output. But in
2017the yield is expected to jump at very higher level due to the reasons
The major problems were climate change insect pests (pink bollworm), competition
with major crops like wheat and other cash crops, low market price, lack of
incentive to farmers. These was some major reasons but behind the curtain some
of the problems at farmer level also exist like the high price and less
availability of fertilizers and pesticides. Farmer is not willing to grow a crop
which has high input but lower output.
However, every fall has a stand. Pakistan is expecting to resolve the issues in
cotton production by taking some of incentives. In 2016 the expected production
was 8-10 percent of total world production which could not accomplished due to
problems discussed earlier in the article, this can be increased to 11 percent
and has chance to improve the international ranking level from 4th in the world
to upper level. There should be a campaign to resolve the issues to increase the
production up to the mark. Traditional varieties are not according to our
requirement, now people moves to modern varieties i.e. organic cotton which will
be have high potential of yield, quality, lint, fiber length etc.
University of agriculture Faisalabad and Burywala are preparing extension
workers to aware them from latest technology. Now in Pakistan, plant breeders
are working on organic cotton which will be having high potential in the future.
These projects going on in new developing area like Baluchistan. Pakistan cotton
research institute now in active form and standardization classing and grading
system of cotton varieties which will be according to our climate and field
In future; Pakistan are struggling to improve its international ranking in
cotton production. Pakistani breeders are improving Btgene expression to cope
with the issues like its oil contents may be low in linolenic acid and other
harmful compounds to make it safe for human consumption and to increase its
yield and fiber quality. It will show result well in the future. PCRI (Pakistan
cotton research institute) is now working on standardization classing and
grading system of cotton varieties which will be according to our climate and
Government is playing its own role to strengthen the seed certification
departments for the better seed quality and purity. During 2015-16, 64 seed
companies were examined, in 64 on 32 seed companies were approved 32 seed
companies were deferred by the Working Group of the Ministry in its 55th meeting
held. It is insuring that all companies of cotton seed are be proved or not.
Sixteen (16) new varieties of Cotton will be approved for distribution and
multiplication. While 25 new candidate varieties have been studied for
Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability. If all varieties are approved and
properly checked its result and expectation in future. It will perform well in
Moreover, Australia has given a grant to Pakistani farmers to aware them from
latest technology and sought out some financial issues which are obstacle in the
failure of getting the potential yield. More than 200,000 farmers will receive
indispensable training in 2017. The Australian Governments’ business partnership
platform (BCI) has granted AUD500, 000(Ref. THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE). BCI with
collaboration of other brands made a plan to make the Pakistani farmers aware of
latest technology and are persuade to give an incentive to produce cotton.
If seed companies or agencies inspect the seed of cotton (germination rate,
facing climatic condition etc.), there will be not any chance of potential yield
decrease. One of the most important step for seed companies and agencies as well
as farmer to check the seed sample and check its germination by germination
test. There will be no issue of plant germination in field. If you have to make
sure the seed quality good, it has resistant against insect pest or other
climatically condition. In future you can get good potential yield from your
field. These steps will make the farmers willing to produce cotton.
After easing slightly in December, many benchmark cotton prices ticked higher in
early January. Chinese prices declined marginally over the past
month(November).Prices for the March NY futures contract rose from levels below
70 cents/lb in late December to as high as 75 cents/lb in intraday training in
early January. The latest values have been between 72 and 74 cents/lb.Movement
in the A Index followed that of NY futures. The A Index held to values below 80
cents/lb through early January, but has risen to levels near 82 cents/lb more
recently. These rise and falls were just marketing effects.
Mill-delivered prices for Chinese cotton (CC Index) edged lower in international
terms over the past month (from 105 to 103 cents/lb). In domestic terms, the CC
Index decreased from 15,950 to 15,800 RMB/ton.
Prices for the popular Indian Shankar-6 variety increased from the equivalent of
73 cents/lb in late December to 77 cents/lb recently. In domestic terms, prices
rose from 39,000 INR/candy to 41,000 INR/candy.
Prices on the Pakistani spot market moved marginally higher, rising from 72 to
74 cents/lb. In domestic terms, the change was from 6,200 to 6,350 PRK/mound.
Given the recent strength of cotton prices relative to prices for other crops,
notably corn, planted cotton acreage can be expected to expand in 2017/18. So it
is the need of the hour to stabilize cotton prices at high level. So that
incentive could be given to farmers to increase the production area.