A lie is an assertion that is believed to be false, typically used with the purpose of deceiving someone. Telling a lie is generally viewed as morally wrong and is psychologically taxing. The practice of communicating lies is called lying. A person who communicates a lie may be termed a liar. Lying allows a person to establish perceived control over a situation by manipulating it. It's a defence mechanism that (apparently) is used from being vulnerable, that is, not to open up and reveal the true self to another person.
Lies may serve a variety of instrumental, interpersonal, or psychological functions for the individuals who use them. Generally, the term "lie" carries a negative connotation, and depending on the context, a person who communicates a lie may be subject to social, legal, religious, or criminal sanctions.
People’s default is telling the truth (Grice, 1991). Thus, most people need a reason to tell a lie. At the same time, many situations provide such reasons, and people report being frequently dishonest in their day-to-day lives. Surely there can be many reasons. Avoiding punishment is the most frequent reason that people tell serious lies, regardless of their age. In serious lies there is a threat of significant damage if the lie is discovered, as loss of freedom, money, job, relationship, reputation, or even life itself. One prominent motivation is gaining material benefits. Many people mislead others to secure some monetary gains. People underreport income to pay less in taxes. The lie might be to avoid being embarrassed, to hide an awkward situation, or to simply have others think better of the person telling the fib.
Imam Ali (May Allah be pleased with him) is quoted as saying:
‘’If entities were materialized, surely truthfulness would stand with courage and cowardice would stand with lying.’’
Lying and falsehood are widespread problems and are roots of other problems that occur on an individual and public level. Lies are spoken and written in the media and in politics, in business and in personal dealings, by Muslims and non-Muslims alike, although the degree, magnitude and frequency may vary. Lying is probably one of the most common wrong acts that we carry out
Lying is sin which is classified among greater sins. The Qur’an is explicit in this regard. The corpus of hadith, and opinion of the majority of jurists, verify this tenet and reason also sustains this assertion. Lying is listed with the greater sins in the narration of Fazl Ibn Shazān from Imam Jafar as-Sadiq (may Allah be pleased with him).
Undoubtedly, lying is the worst of sins. It is obvious that the evils of lying are considered even more dreadful than those of adultery. Some false words may lead to war between two tribes or two sections of the society. Some lies blight the honor of thousands of people or endanger their lives, or lead to economic disasters.
Some psychologists tell us that its impossible not to lie, that we all do it every day, consciously or unconsciously, in one way or another. This view almost makes it look like lying is normal and that a certain amount of lying is okay. But even the psychologists who make this claim admit that it is bad and lying can become addictive and destructive, destroying relationships, families, communities, even whole countries. Alhamdulillah, the Nobel Quran is gift from God and clear guidelines for Muslims and all human beings.
A large number of Quranic verses and traditions condemn the sin of lying and describe its evil consequences. In the following verses Quran says:
“And cover not Truth with falsehood, nor conceal the Truth when ye know (what it is)” 2:42
“Conceal not evidence; for whoever conceals it, His heart is tainted with sin. And Allah Knoweth all that ye do”. 2:283
It sometimes happens that if some inconvenient piece of evidence is destroyed or concealed, we may gain a substantial advantage materially. But we are warned not to yield to such a temptation. The concealment of evidence has a serious effect on our own moral and spiritual life, for it taints the very source of higher life, as typified by the heart. The heart is also the seat of our secrets. We are told that the sin will reach our most secret being, though the sin may not be visible or open to the world. Further, the heart is the seat of our affections, and false dealing taints all our affections.
“Truly Allah guides not one who transgresses and lies”
This is with reference to the "Clear Signs" that these are are Signs of Allah's guidance, for Allah would never guide a man who exceeds the bounds of truth and tells lies! Such a man is bound to be exposed.
“But Allah guides not such as are false and ungrateful”. 39:3
“The curse of Allah be upon him if he should be among the liars." 24:7
Hypocrite is someone who pretends to hold some beliefs or whose actions are not consistent practically with the clamed beliefs. The natural consequence is that hypocrisy hides his falsehood. All consequences of our own acts are in Quranic language are accountable before Allah. Such consequences are held in record till the Day of Judgment, when everyone will have to account for their deeds
“So He hath put as a consequence hypocrisy into their hearts, (to last) till the Day, whereon they shall meet Him: because they broke their covenant with Allah, and because they lied (again and again)”. 9:77
Lying is the worst thing. To hide one lie, thousands of other lies are needed. When someone speaks lies, the conscience of the person pokes him every time that he has spoken a lie and this disturbs the inner peace of the person. No one can ever get away with lying; in the end it will be clear who was truthful and who was not.