Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) common name Til, Gingilli, (family pedaliaceae) is one of the oldest cultivated plants in the world. Its oil is usually of pale yellow. It is a precious oil crop in the world because it has a long shelf-life as compared to other oil seed crops. Today India and China are the major producer of sesame in the world, but small level of production is also observed by Burma, Sudan, Mexico, Nigeria, Venezuela, Turkey, Uganda and Ethiopia. It is mostly used in candy making, cakes and other industries. Food fried in sesame oil has a long shelf life because its oil contains an antioxidant called Sesamol.
It is an important and prized crop for countries but this crop has some constraints. Due to constraints the farmer does not cultivate this crop at commercial level.some of the major constraonts are discussed below.
Major constraints in sesame:
Shattering losses: In sesame shattering losses is a major constraint due to the splitting or breakdown of capsule .when the capsule ripe due to birds and wind capsules split from the base.
Non-uniform maturity: When the capsules uneven mature, there is shedding more. The farmer does not harvest because of non-uniform maturity of sesame.
Lack of improved varieties: The farmers do not grow improved varieties like Til-93, Ts-3, S-17 and Pb.Til-90. Un-improved and local varieties are more used as compare to other commercially cultivated varieties.
Compete with other crops: Sesame sowing is started in July, it compete with rice.
Inferior quality seed: Farmers use inferior quality seed of sesame which gives the less production at the end.
Low fertilizer use: Farmer also uses less fertilizer and grows on poor land and altimately its yield low.
No potential buyer: Potential buyer prefer wheat,rice, maize and other commercially cultivated crops.
Insect and diseases attack: Due to the insects (sphingid moth and webworm) and diseases (bacterial leaf spot and bacterial blight) attack produced seed is of poor quality and unhealthy.
By Breeding and Government policy we can overcome the constraints of sesame.
High yield cultivar: Breeders should produce high yield cultivars by using different breeding methods and techniques.By mass selection present contamination in the sesame cultivars can be improved.In this way we will be able to get more near to its potential.By pedigree method new high yield varieties can be developed.
Non-shattering cultivars: Breeders should focus on producing those varieties which are uniform mature and less or non-shattering.UCR-3, SW-16 and SW-17 are the non-shattering varieties may be used to reduce the shattering lose saving of Til.
Drought tolerance: Breeders use those plants in their breeding program which are drought tolerance and have tap root system.
Resistant to insect and diseases: Breeders produce resistant in plants against the insects (sphingid moth and webworm) and diseases (bacterial leaf spot and bacterial blight) .
Available of potential buyer: Government should be provided support price and potential buyer for sesame and other oil seed crops.
Available of certified seed: Government should be made plane to prohibit the contamination of seed at dealer level and also check it is ceritified or not.
Sesame production is ignored in Pakistan due to its competion with major crops and farmer are non willing to cultivate upto the mark level .More over the problem discussed above are limiting its production. By taking some measures and considering the solutions mentioned above not only we can improve its production but also we can take part in earning foreign exchange.
All the above solutions require government harmony to cope with the prevailing problems. By different sources like print media and agriculture extension we can make the government aware of these problems to pave a way towards high production.