Tunnel farming and its importance

(Muhammad Rizwan, Okara)

M.Rizwan ,Dr.Zaid Mustafa
Tunnel farming being one of the most prominent farming system getting increased popularity among the farmers in Pakistan. In Punjab province the temperature of December and January is very low and the problem of frost is also present. Due to which it is not possible to grow early vegetable of summer in these months. For higher production and early availability of summer vegetables tunnel farming is being practiced. Because tunnel is covered with plastic sheet in severe cold months. So the temperature of tunnel remains moderate. Therefore, the growth of plants continuous in tunnel even in the severe and frost condition. Not only the availability of early vegetables is possible but in tunnel the per acre production is also higher than routine crops. Due to which not only the availability of vegetable duration is increased but employment and farmers, income also increases. There are different types of tunnel on the basis of height which can be used, are known as High tunnel with height of 3-4 meters and second one is walk in tunnel with height of 2 meter and third one is lower tunnel with height of 1 meter. The types of tunnel on the basis of structure are bamboo tunnel and iron tunnel. Bamboo tunnel is cheaper but cannot be long lasting. Bamboo tunnels can be used maximum for three years. Iron tunnel is made with the help of T iron or angel iron. Iron tunnel is costly and its age is roundabout to 15-20 year. Third type of tunnel on structure basis is lower tunnel which can be made from slim bamboo or mulberry branches in the form of bow. Farmers also gain advantage by the use of black plastic sheet as a mulch. For the protection of roots of vegetables, the use of black plastic is beneficial. For this purpose, one side of the furrow or both of the sides cover with black plastic sheet and a whole is made with the help of hot pipe on a place where nursery had to be grown. Black plastic sheet is used when the weather is cold. Otherwise the shifted nursery would start to die if the sheet would become warm. By the use of plastic sheet, we get rid of weeds, we can conserve soil moisture and increasing the quality of food. It gives warmth to the roots and shoots of vegetables in cold weather days. particular variety of tomato and cucumber are cultivated in the tunnel. The nursery of tomatoes and chilies should not be cultivated before 15th October because some kind of virus diseases particularly on vegetables attack the crop if possible then these crops should be cultivated under tunnel made of net. To stop the attack of aphid and white fly nursery should be spray with a certain type of chemicals because these insects helps in spreading the virus in crops. For tunnel farming the land should be fertile and 4-5 months before cultivation the FYM should be spread in the land. The quantity of FYM should be 3-5 tons/canal. After applying FYM Gunter should be cultivated and incorporated in field as green manure. Now before the cultivation of major tunnel crop the field should be thoroughly ploughed and leveled with the help of planked and then the crop should be planted in the field as particular distance. After first irrigation the nursery and chili is transferred from out of field to the tunnel while the other crops directly grown by sowing. In winter after 2-3 weeks’ furrow irrigation should be applied after 3-4 days. Drip irrigation is efficient method of tunnel farming. In tunnel farming favorable environment for cultivated vegetable is ranges from 15-30 cent grade. At day time tunnel doors should be kept opened so that the tunnel moisture remained suitable for vegetables and therefore reduces the chances of disease attack in tunnel. At day time from 9 am to 4 pm the tunnels door should be opened from both sides because higher humidity results in more disease attack. It should be kept in mind that the tunnel should be covered with plastic sheet so that the cold air should not pass into the tunnel and the temperature should be constant. In tunnel farming cultivated vegetable production is higher than vegetable cultivated in outfield so the reasons are followed The plants should be planted more in per canals and at the time of production we gain more profit in market. Availability of suitable environment in tunnel and to cultivate the high yielding varieties. Applying FYM and irrigation at suitable conditions and intensive care of cultivated vegetables.

 

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07 Nov, 2017 Views: 2107

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