Summary of the Branches of Eemaan

(manhaj-as-salaf, Peshawar)

by Ahmad ibn ‘Alee ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalaanee

Translated by Aboo Shaybah

The following is a summary offered by ibn Hajar in Fath al-Baaree (1/52-53 as-Salafiyyah print) about the branches of Eemaan. They are presented in this translation as a numbered list.

Al-Qaadee ‘Iyaad said, “A group of scholars went to great lengths in enumerating these branches based on their own deduction, but it would be difficult to conclusively say that what they arrived at is in fact what is intended [in the hadeeth]. However, there is nothing wrong in explaining the details of eemaan without being able to specifically identify those branches.”

Those who listed the branches did not all do so in the same manner, and the most accurate of them was the method used by ibn Hibbaan. However, we did not actually find them listed in his own works. Thus, I have summarized what they mentioned as follows:

These branches stem from the actions of the heart, tongue, and limbs.

The actions of the heart are beliefs and intentions, and they comprise twenty four qualities:
[1] Eemaan in Allaah; and this includes eemaan in His essence, attributes, uniqueness, that there is nothing like Him, and that everything besides Him has a beginning.
[2] Eemaan in His Angels
[3] Eemaan in His Books
[4] Eemaan in His Messengers
[5] Eemaan in the Divine Decree, good and bad
[6] Eemaan in the Last Day; this includes being questioned in the grave, being raised and brought back to life, being held to account, the balance, the siraat, Jannah, and the Fire.
[7] Loving Allaah
[8] Love and hatred for the sake of Allaah
[9] Loving the Prophet (صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم) and honoring him; this includes invoking salaah upon him and following his Sunnah.
[10] Sincerity; and this includes forsaking riyaa’ and nifaaq
[11] Repentance
[12] Reverential fear
[13] Hope
[14] Gratitude
[15] Loyalty
[16] Patient perseverance
[17] Being content with Allaah’s decree
[18] Placing reliance upon Allaah
[19] Mercy
[20] Humility; and this includes respecting the elderly and being kind to the young.
[21] Forsaking arrogance and conceit
[22] Forsaking envy
[23] Forsaking rancour
[24] Forsaking anger

The actions of the tongue comprise seven qualities:
[25] Declaration of Tawheed
[26] Reciting the Qur’aan
[27] Acquiring knowledge
[28] Imparting knowledge
[29] Du‘aa’
[30] Remembrance and mention of Allaah; this includes seeking forgiveness.
[31] Forsaking useless talk

The actions of the limbs comprise thirty eight qualities:

Some pertain to the individual himself, and these are fifteen:
[32] Purification, tangible and intangible; this includes avoiding filthy things
[33] Covering the ‘awrah
[34] Prayer, both obligatory and optional
[35] Zakaah, both obligatory and optional
[36] Emancipating slaves
[37] Generosity; this includes feeding others and being hospitable to guests
[38] Fasting, both obligatory and optional
[39] Hajj and ‘Umrah, both obligatory and optional
[40] Tawaaf
[41] I‘tikaaf
[42] Seeking out Laylatul-Qadr
[43] Fleeing to protect one’s religion; this includes migration from lands of shirk
[44] Fulfilling vows
[45] Exercising care regarding oaths
[46] Performing prescribed expiation for certain sins

Some pertain to relatives and dependents, and these are six qualities:
[47] Guarding one’s chastity through marriage
[48] Fulfilling the rights of dependents
[49] Kindness to parents; this includes avoiding disobedience to them
[50] Rearing children properly
[51] Maintaining ties of kinship
[52] Obedience to a master, or kind treatment of slaves

Some pertain to others in general, and these are seventeen qualities:
[53] Fulfilling positions of authority with justice
[54] Conforming to the jamaa‘ah
[55] Obedience to those in authority
[56] Reconciliation between people; this includes combating the khawaarij and insurgents
[57] Cooperation in acts of good; this includes commanding good and forbidding evil
[58] Enacting prescribed legal penalties
[59] Jihaad; this includes military defense and security
[60] Returning entrusted items; this includes setting aside one fifth of war spoils
[61] Giving loans and paying them back
[62] Kind treatment of neighbors
[63] Conducting dealings respectably; this includes earning a lawful income
[64] Spending wealth rightfully; this includes forsaking extravagance in amount and manner
[65] Responding when greeted with the salaam
[66] Saying yarhamukallaah to someone who sneezes
[67] Refraining from harming others
[68] Forsaking falsity and useless things
[69] Removing harm from the pathway

These are sixty nine qualities, and they can reach seventy nine if the preceding sub-branches are counted individually. And Allaah knows best.


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مزہبی کالم نگاری میں لکھنے اور تبصرہ کرنے والے احباب سے گزارش ہے کہ دوسرے مسالک کا احترام کرتے ہوئے تنقیدی الفاظ اور تبصروں سے گریز فرمائیں - شکریہ